Конспект занятия "The Economics of Energy: Basic Trends" 11 класс

Тема: The Economics of Energy: Basic Trends
- понять основные грамматические признаки и применять их в упражнениях; поиск и
выделение необходимой информации (конспект);
-составлять простое монологическое высказывание с использованием нового
грамматического материала;
-читать и переводить текст.
1.Тренировка произносительных навыков.
2. Ознакомление с лексикой по теме «The Economics of Energy: Basic Trends
3.Изучение грамматического материала и активизация грамматических навыков по теме:
«Независимый причастный оборот»
Методы обучения:
Тип учебного занятия: комбинированное занятие.
Вид учебного занятия: практическое занятие.
Теоретическая часть:
Независимый причастный оборот в английском языке:
Самостоятельный или независимый причастный оборот в английском языке является
сочетанием существительного (noun) в общем падеже и причастия. Причастием может
выступать как Participle ll, так и Participle l во всех своих формах. Иногда вместо
существительного используется личное местоимение.
Существительное или местоимение + Причастие
Данный оборот довольно редко используется в разговорной речи, чаще всего он
применяется в технической, научной литературе.
В предложении он отделяется от остальных частей речи запятыми. Может находиться в
любой части предложения: конце, середине, самом начале, но чаще всего употребляется
перед подлежащим. Эта конструкция, как правило, выполняет функцию
обстоятельственного придаточного предложения.
Какие функции выполняет независимый причастный оборот в английском языке
Функция обстоятельства времени при переводе часто используются «когда», «после
того, как».
The snow having stopped, he ran to the bakery to buy some bread for his children.
После того, как снег пересталидти, он побежал в булочную купить хлеб своим детям.
The lamp having been lit, Mr. Jackson took his daughter’s book.
Когда лампа была зажжена, мистерДжексон взял книгу дочери.
Иногда в самостоятельных причастных оборотах пропускается Participle I (being) от
глагола be.
The double period (being) over, our lecturer left the university. Когда пара закончилась,
преподаватель ушел из университета.
Функция обстоятельства причины
Здесь могут использоваться как noun и pronoun уществительное и местоимение), так и
оборот there (is).
It being now late, I took my torch and went out of the building. Так как было поздно, я взял
свой фонарик и вышел из здания.
There being no one in the classroom, I played football. Так как в классе никого не было, я
поиграл в футбол.
Как правило, независимый причастный оборот в английском языке ставится в конец
She turned and ran, I, as before, following her. Она повернулась и побежала, я, как и
прежде, последовал за ней.
Функция обстоятельства условия
Здесь, как правило, применяются обороты с причастиями failing и permitting.
Circumstances permitting, I’ll attend his lecture next Friday. Если обстоятельства позволят,
я посещу его лекцию в следующую пятницу.
Conciliation failing, nobody will help me. Если примирение не будет достигнуто, то никто
мне не поможет.
Практическая часть
В следующих предложениях найдите независимый причастный оборот. Переведите
предложения на русский язык.
a) 1. An increase in price of one percent resulting in an increase in supply of more than one
percent, the supply is called elastic. 2. Ceiling prices being controlled by the government, goods
may find their way to the black market. 3. In the next 25 years or so, the average age in the
United States increasing, problems of the aged rather than young people will be of importance. 4.
With a financial panic everyone wanting his money at the same time, the bank is unable to pay.
5. Cheques being accepted in payment of purchases, people feel that a bank account is as good as
or even better than money in their pocket.
b) 1. The two principal economic systems were considered to be capitalism and socialism, mixed
economies lying in between those. 2. Natural resources are one of the three factors of production,
the other two being labour and capital. 3. Auctions make buyers bid against each other, with the
seller taking a passive role. 4. The world distribution of income is unjust, with poor countries
having 61 percent of the world's population, but receiving only 6 percent of the world income.
Прочитайте и переведите текст
The Economics of Energy: Basic Trends
The modern economy is known to require vast amounts of energy for farms, factories,
homes, and transportation. The modern dependence on fossil fuels especially coal, oil, and
natural gas is considered to be a brief episode in human history. Since they took 300 million
years to form, these resources will not be replaced to any considerable degree. Even the vast
reserves of coal are expected to be used up entirely in a few centuries. As to oil, economists
expect all the oil-producing countries known to use up most of their reserves in about 50 years'
time. The economic use of fuels begins with the easiest and cheapest sources and then moves to
less accessible costlier ones. As the best coal is used up, shafts must be sunk deeper. Similarly,
oil and gas must be sought in more inaccessible places, which add to their production costs. The
present variety of sources ranges from shallow Mideast oil wells to expensive capital-intensive
solar equipment. The choice of a fuel to be produced amounts to the future opportunity costs of
alternative fuel sources. Note that the rising scarcity of fuel is a matter of degree. There exists a
great variety of choices from cheap fuels to very expensive ones. Rather than use up all of them
at once, the world is expected to move to increasing scarcity, which will take the form of rising
energy prices. Moreover, investors will realize the coming scarcity and try to buy the reserves
now, which in itself will send up prices. In short, the market anticipates the physical shortages,
and the expected future Price increases raise the current price of fuel. Since most fuels can be
replaced by others in, at least, some uses, the rise in oil prices, for example, naturally, results in a
parallel rise in prices for other fuels, including coal, gas, nuclear fuel, and even firewood. And
indeed, there occurred a steep rise of oil Prices, particularly in the 1970s and 1980s. It stimulated
the search for more °n deposits. Much of the effort has been focused on the ocean floors,
espelally in remote regions. The search for gas has also been stimulated as a rue l t of the
removal of some controls on the price of US gas. These added torts have brought some results.
However, the marginal revenue of explored continues to decrease. One should expect this since
the cheapest; most 121 accessible sources were exploited decades ago. Moreover, it is costlier to
transport the more remote oil and gas reserves to the market. For example, oil and gas pipelines
from Alaska and large-investment projects. But eventually, no discovery, however fast, can
increase the amount of fuel in the ground. This only makes it possible for us to turn the available
reserves to human uses more rapidly. A rapid discovery and use of fossil fuels may, though,
destroy the balance of reserves used and those conserved for future use. How much this is
desirable depends on the prospects for alternative fuel sources, such as solar energy, nuclear
power, fusion processes using water, and ocean tides, the profitability of those future sources is
mostly unknown now. Only if other sources are going to be cheap and to meet the demands of
growing population, the rapid discovery and use of oil deposits can be considered to be desirable,
whereas uncertain prospects for new technology will raise oil prices rapidly now, which will be a
disincentive rather than an incentive for speeding up the use of new oil. б)
Используя текст, закончите следующие предложения:
Economists believe oil-producing countries to use up most of their oil reserves ... 2. The choice
of a fuel to be produced in future depends ... 3. At present, the price of oil rises because ... 4. A
rise in oil prices results in ... 5. The search for new oil deposits is mainly done in ... 6. The
marginal revenue of exploration decreases since ... 7. The rapid discovery and use of new oil
deposits is desirable provided ...
Список используемой литературы:
Английский язык для студентов экономических специальностей. Глушенкова Е.В.,
Комарова Е.Н. - М.: 2003 - 352 с