Конспект занятия "Factors of Production" 11 класс

Тема: Factors of Production
- понять основные грамматические признаки и применять их в упражнениях; поиск и
выделение необходимой информации (конспект);
-составлять простое монологическое высказывание с использованием нового
грамматического материала;
-читать и переводить текст.
1.Тренировка произносительных навыков.
2. Ознакомление с лексикой по теме «Factors of Production
3.Изучение грамматического материала и активизация грамматических навыков по теме:
«Функции и перевод it, one»
Методы обучения:
Тип учебного занятия: комбинированное занятие.
Вид учебного занятия: практическое занятие.
Теоретическая часть:
1) It
а) Если после местоимения стоит именное сказуемое (to be + прилагательное или
наречие), то it является формальным подлежащим и на русский язык не переводится.
It is necessary to master this specialty.
Необходимо овладеть этой специальностью.
б) Если после it в функции подлежащего стоит глагол действия, то it переводится личным
местоимением. “он”, ”она”, ”оно”.
Where is the map? It is on the wall.
а) количественным числительным со значением “один”.
б) формальным подлежащим, и в таком случае на русский язык не переводится.
One must study a foreign language regularly.
Нужно изучать иностранный язык регулярно.
в) Заместителем существительного и в таком случае вместо перевода one следует
повторить заменяемое им существительное, или не переводить.
Take my pen. Thank you, I’ve got one.
Практическая часть
Переведите текст .
Factors of Production: Capital and Labour
Factors of production are resources used by firms as inputs for a good or service to be produced.
Factors of production are as follows: capital, labour, and natural resources.
In economic theory, the term "capital" refers to goods and money used to produce more goods and
money. Classifications of capital vary with the purpose of the classification. The most general distinction
is the one made between physical, financial, and human capital.
Physical capital is land, buildings, equipment, raw materials; bonds, stocks, available bank balances
are included in the financial capital. They both make a great contribution to production.
To group capital into fixed capital and circulating capital is common practice. The former refers to
means of production such as land, buildings, machinery and various equipment. They are durable, that is,
they participate in the production process over several years. Circulating capital includes both on
renewable goods, such as raw materials and fuel, and the funds required to pay wages and other claims
against2 the enterprise. Non-renewable goods are used up in one production cycle and their value is fully
transferred to the final product.
Human capital is knowledge that contributes "know-how to production. It is increased by research
and disseminated through education. Investment in human capital results in new, technically improved,
products and production processes which improve economic efficiency. Like physical capital, human
capital is important enough to be an indicator of economic development of a nation.
It is common, in economics, to understand labour as an effort needed to satisfy human needs. It is one
of the three leading elements of production. Labor has a variety of functions: production of raw materials,
manufacturing of final products, transferring things from one place to another, management of
production, and services like the ones rendered by physicians and teachers.
One can classify labour into productive and unproductive. The former produces physical objects
having utility. The latter is useful but does not produce material wealth. Labour of the musician is an
Unlike other factors of production, for example capital, once workers are employed, their efficiency
can vary greatly with organization of work and their motivation.
Demand for labour is influenced by the demand for goods produced by workers, the proportion of
wages in total production costs, etc. The supply of labour depends upon the size of population, geographic
mobility, skills, education level (human capital), etc. Workers supply labour either individually or through
trade unions. If demand for and supply of labour are not in equilibrium, there is unemployment. The rate
of unemployment is a percentage of the total labour force without a job. It is desirable for an economy to
have the lowest possible unemployment rate and to achieve higher employment as neither full use of
resources nor maximum level of output can be achieved in an economy having unemployment.
Factors of production are combined together in different proportions in order to produce output. It is
assumed in economics that one should choose the combination of factors which minimizes the cost of
production and increases profits.
The third factor of production, natural resources, poses too many economic problems3to be discussed
here. We will analyze them in the following unit.
Пояснения к тексту
1.is common practice - зд. общепринято
2.claims against - требования; претензии на что-либо,права начто-либо
3.to pose problems - ставить проблемы
Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на значения слова it. Укажите номера
предложений, в которыхit не переводится.
1.In principle, it is possible, but in practice, it is very inefficient to control the output of cars changing the
incomes of potential buyers and manipulating transport costs. It is easier to control the output of cars
ling the availability of raw materials, for example steel, to manufacturers.
2.Firms can either save (копить, накапливать) their income or pay it out to their owners.
3.It is common practice to include all the more or less durable means of production, such as land, buildings
and machinery in fixed capital.
4.Early economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo said that the value of product depended upon the
amount of labor needed to produce it.
5.In comparing national incomes (in total and per person) it is not important which members of the
population earn this income, in analyzing incomes within a country, it is important.
Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значения слова one.
1.One thing in which workers are different is human capital.
2.Many people who do not get a new job after quitting (оставлять) the old one often leave the labour force to
return to school, to work in a family garden, or for other purposes.
3.Everyone can find himself in one of three situations: employed, or unemployed, or out of the labour force.
4.One can be more economical buying large quantities of a good rather than small quantities.
5.A worker in the United Kingdom earns more than the one in India.
6.One should know that present-day economists, unlike economists of the 19th century, include land in
7.One has to replace inputs used up in one production cycle.
8.If, with a change of price, the supply increases by less than one per cent, it is called inelastic.
9.One defines (определять) efficiency as the relationship between factor inputs and output of goods and
10.One calls a consumer good such as a television, which is used over long periods of time rather than
immediately, a durable good.
11.One achieves higher health standards by increasing the number of workers and equipment, that is, by
reducing labour and capital used for other purposes.
Список используемой литературы:
Английский язык для студентов экономических специальностей. Глушенкова Е.В.,
Комарова Е.Н. - М.: 2003 - 352 с
С.В. Первухина. Английский язык в таблицах и схемах.Ростов н/Д:Феникс,2015