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ПЕРВАЯ МИРОВАЯ ВОЙНА 1914-1918г

THE UNITED STATES IN THE WORLD AFFAIRS AND WORLD WAR I

Teacher: Egorova S. A.

Study group 13

CONTENT

  • Gaining power in the world
  • The changing role of the USA
  • A century of growth
  • the Spanish – American War
  • The United States expands
  • World War I
  • The first shots
  • The USA goes to war
  • The peace that failed
  • Questions to discuss

Gaining Power in the World

In the period between 1800 and 1900 the USA had changed from a farming nation to an industrial country. This time the US was not involved in the affairs of other countries. The situation started changing in the end of the 19th century. Between 1900 and 1945 the United States faced many problems at home and overseas but by 1945 it had become one of the strongest and richest countries in the world.

The Changing Role of the USA

The interests of the USA in the affairs of other nations increased in the end of the 19th century:

  • necessity in new markets to sell goods which it produced;
  • necessity in row materials from other countries to use in its factories;
  • business leaders and many Americans thought the USA should play more active role in the affairs of the European countries.

A Century of Growth

The beginning of 19th century

The beginning of 20th century

farming country

industrial country

16 states

45 states

less than 6 mil. people

76 mil. people

Invention of steamships

Invention of telegraph

The Spanish – American War

Reasons:

  • Protection of the investments made in the Cuba sugar industry;
  • Help in fighting for Cuba independence.
  • Spark a War:

    The explosion of the American battleship “Maine” in Havana, February, 15, 1898. 260 American soldiers were killed.

    Some facts to learn about the war:

    In April 1898 Spain and the USA went to war.

    The war was fought in other Spanish colonies too, e.g. in the Philippine Islands.

    In two weeks the war was over.

The United States Expands

According to the peace treaty signed with Spain the USA

gained control over Puerto Rico,

the Philippine Islands and

the island of Guam.

In 1867 the US bought Alaska.

In 1898 the USA took control of Hawaii

In 1914 the Americans built the Panama Canal

between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

World War I

In the summer of 1914 the First World War broke out in Europe. The war expanded to Europe’s colonies in Africa and Asia.

The strongest nations of the world quarreled with each other over colonies and trade.

For several years the countries of Europe had been divided into 2 alliances: Allies (Great Britain, France and Russia) and Central Powers (Germany and Austria – Hungary).

On the 28th of June, 1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria – Hungary was shot and killed while visiting Serbia

The USA Goes to the War

In the beginning of the war President Wilson was strongly against the participation of the country in the war

BUT

In May 1915 a German submarine sank the British liner “Lusitania” near the coast of Ireland. More than 1000 people were killed including 128 Americans.

In 1917 German submarines sank some Americans merchant ships to prevent them from bringing goods to Britain.

In April 1917 the Congress declared the war on the Central Powers

By November 1917 3 million Americans were in the armed forces.

Over 2 million American soldiers were sent to Europe, mainly to France.

In July 1918 the Allies stopped the major German advance into France. The American troops were led by General John J. Pershing. That was the turning point of the war.

A Total War on the Home Front

The Peace that Failed

In November 1918 the war was over.

President Wilson went to France to take part in writing the peace treaty. His idea was “a peace without victory”.

Willson’s peace plan called the Fourteen Points proposed an organization called The League of Nations to be established.

The Senate rejected his plan. The League of Nations was established without the USA.

The World War I 1914-1918

RESULTS: 33 countries participated

(1,5 bil. people)

Dissolution of the German, the Russian, the Austria – Hungarian and the Ottoman Empires

More than 10 mil. dead

Economic crisis, hunger, war ruin

WORLD CATASTROPHY

Questions to discuss

  • What was the United State’ interests in the affairs of other countries in the 19th century?
  • What changes took place in the USA between 1800 and 1900?
  • What were the causes of the Spanish – American war?
  • What territories did the USA gain by the end of the 19th century?
  • What were the opposing alliances in Europe at the beginning of the 20th century?
  • When did the USA enter World War I?
  • Describe Wilson’s plan for peace?
  • What were the results of World War I?