Викторина "По странам изучаемого языка" 9-11 класс
Викторина по страноведению «По странам изучаемого языка»
2015-16 уч. год
Match the pictures 1- 8 to the names of the sights and places (A-H). There are more names than you will need.
A. Times Square, New York, the USA.
B. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, the USA.
C. The House of Shakespeare, Stratford-upon-Avon, England
D. Piccadilly Circus, London, England
E. The Monument to Washington, Washington, the USA
F. Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland
G. The Monument to Lincoln, Washington, the USA
H. Windsor Castle, Windsor, England
For items 1-10 read an article about English place names. Fill in the gaps in the table, using the information
from the text.
The oldest place names in England are Celtic, like the majority of the place names in Wales and Cornwall. They
include river names such as Avon and Ouse, and some names including the word pen, meaning “hill”. There is
even one of those in a London suburb- Penge.
The Roman occupation, during the first four hundred years of our era, left some place names, particularly ending
in –chester, or –caster (from Latin castra, “a camp or fort”). The English word street also comes from the Roman
But the overwhelming majority of English place names were contributed by the Angles and Saxons, who invaded
or settled from the fifth century onwards. Very common endings are –ham,-ton, and –wick (or -wich) meaning “a
farm”, -worth or –worthy implies also something like “a farm”. The family suffix, like –ov in Russian, was –ing.
The town of Reading was originally the small farm of a man called Red, whose name is preserved in the
pronunciation, which is, as it were, “Red-ing”.
The ending –bury, -burgh, or –borough usually means “a fort” (Old English burh) but sometimes a “hill” (Old
English bearh, like German berg). Names, which use hall, do not often imply an ancient hall; they are more likely
the same as the names in hale or halgh, meaning a corner or a triangular piece of land. Lea, lee or leigh were
originally clearings in a wood, and later any open place. Shaw meant “a wood”, hurst meant “a small hill”,
probably wooded. Many of these elements are not found as separate words in Old English, but only as part of a
place name. However, some place names are quite easy to understand, like Cambridge- the bridge over the river
The Scandinavian invaders (9
centuries) brought some place names of their own: -by and –thorpe for a
settlement, -thwait for a clearing, and -toft for homestead.
The Normans after their conquest in 1066 contributed very few place names, but the more important places often
acquired something of a Norman-French form from being recorded by the new administration, e.g. Chester-le-
Street, where le is the French word “les” meaning “next to”, or Ashby-de-la-Zouch, which added the name of the
Norman lord of the manor to the original Ashby.
New names since those days are very few indeed, but there have been a few industrial settlements named after
the firm which was responsible for their existence, e.g. Stewartby in Bedfordshire. When founding “New Towns”
the British authorities have preferred to use the name of an existing settlement however small, e.g. Cumbernauld
in Scotland. Peterlee in Durham, however, was named after miners’ leader Peter Lee.
Typical words/ endings
and their meanings
Examples of place