Before the Romans invaded, the Celts ruled Britain. The Celts were divided up into different tribesruled by kings or chiefs who lived in hill forts.
In Celtic Britain there were no towns, as such. Most people were farmers who lived in round thatched houses made from wood. There were no roads either, people would travel on dusty tracks or muddy paths instead. And neighbouring tribes would often quarrel, which sometimes led to vicious battles between them.
Julius Caesar made two attempts to invade Britain, first in 55 B.C. and then again in 54 B.C. Both times the British warriors and the rotten British weather made his army give up and return to Gallia.
Nearly a hundred years later in A.D. 43 the Emperor Claudius sent another army to invade Britain. This time the Romans were successful, Roman Britain had begun!
III. The Saxons, Jutes and Angles
The Angle, Saxon, and Jute tribes who invaded Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries are known as the Anglo-Saxons. They left their homelands in northern Germany, Denmark and northern Holland and rowed across the North Sea in wooden boats.
IV. The Vikings
The Viking people came from three countries of Scandinavia: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. They were also known as the Norse people. They were mostly farmers, but some worked as craftsmen or traders.
V. The Normans
England was invaded by the Normans in 1066, and at the famous Battle of Hastings, King Harold was killed. On 25 December 1066
William of Normandy was crowned king of England.
He was crowned William I (although is more commonly referred to as William the Conqueror) in Westminster Abbey, the burial place of Edward the Confessor, the king from whom William derived his claim to the throne.
Who? When? Where from?
6-3 century BC
The Saxons, Jutes and Angles
Germany, Holland, Denmark
The influence of invasions on people and their culture was great, and the languages of invaders had a great effect on English
Words of Germanic origine: Shoe, clothes, earth, sun, moon, water, house, friend, day
Words of Norman-French origin:
Judge, army, power, nation, crown, court