Тренировочные упражнения "Модальные глаголы (must, can) и их эквиваленты. Модальные фразы “would rather”, “had better”"


Муниципальное автономное общеобразовательное учреждение
муниципального образования Тихорецкий район
Гимназия №6 города Тихорецка
«Модальные глаголы (must, can) и их эквиваленты. Модальные фразы
“would rather”, “had better»
Система тренировочных упражнений.
Костенко Ольга Алексеевна, учитель английского языка.
г. Тихорецк, 2013г.
The modal verb “can” has only two forms – “can” in the present and “could”
in the past. The missing tense is supplied by the future of “to be able”.
“Can” expresses physical ability, mental capacity, permission or possibility,
supposition, doubt, disbelief. In this case “can” is translated into Russian as
не может быть, невозможно.
Examples:
Physical ability
1. Tom can lift heavy boxes
2. Tom can run long distances
Mental capacity
1. Helen can read French books in the original
2. Helen can speak many foreign languages
Permission or possibility
1. You can join our circle
2. You can consult our professor
Doubt, disbelief
1. Can it be stormy today? The forecast was good.
2. Can John be 16 years old? He is a student already.
Exercise: Answer the following questions using the suggestions in brackets.
1. Where can I buy fruit? (greengrocery)
2. Where can I find a room? (hotel)
3. Where can I get some medicine? (chemist’s)
4. Where can I find a winter coat? (ready-made clothes counter)
5. Where can I buy some meat? (butcher’s)
6. Where can I buy some flour? (grocery)
7. Where can I find eggs? (dairy)
8. Where can I get flowers? (florist’s)
9. Where can I buy sugar? (grocery)
10. Where can I see a good play? (theatre)
Exercise: Say what you can do and what you cannot do if you have or have
not the thing named.
Model: P1: You’ve got a pen.
P2: I can write with it.
1. You’ve got a pencil.
2. You’ve got a duster.
3. You’ve got some soap.
4. You’ve got some money.
5. You’ve got a shopping - bag.
6. You’ve got a shoe brush.
7. You’ve got a clothes brush.
8. You’ve got a spoon.
Model: P1: You haven’t got a pen.
P2: I can’t write without one.
P1: You haven’t got a camera.
P2: I can’t take pictures without one.
1. You haven’t got a towel (…dry myself)
2. You haven’t got a fork.
3. You haven’t got a tea - cup.
4. You haven’t got a textbook. (…do my homework)
5. You haven’t got a tennis ball.
6. You haven’t got a school – bag.
7. You haven’t got an umbrella (…go out in rainy weather)
Умение делать что – либо в будущем передаётся выражением shall/will
be able to do smth.
Exercise: Give extended answers to your desk mate’s questions using the
hints.
Model: P1: Can you speak English fluently? (…when I return from my
exchange trip to England)
P2: No, I can’t. But I hope I’ll be able to speak English fluently when I
return from my exchange trip to England.
1. Can you swim? (…if I find a good coach)
2. Can you play basketball? (…when I join the basketball section)
3. Can you play chess? (…if I buy a teach – yourself book)
4. Can you prepare your dinner? (…when my mother teaches me how to
do it)
5. Can you use a washing machine? (…when I grow older)
6. Can you drive a car? (when I get a driving license)
7. Can you send an e mail? (when somebody teaches me how to do it)
8. Can you read English books and magazines? (…when I’m in the
eleventh form)
Возможность выполнения действий в прошлом передаётся одним из
двух способов.
Compare:
1. We could meet yesterday. Мы могли встретиться вчера. (Но,
очевидно, не воспользовались этой возможностью).
2. We were able to meet yesterday. Мы смогли встретиться вчера.
(Наша встреча состоялась).
Exercise: Ask your desk mate these questions; let him/her answer them.
1. Ask your desk mate if he/she was able to speak when he was two years
old.
2. Ask if he was able to swim when he was a little boy.
3. Ask if he was able to read or write when he first went to school.
4. Ask if he was able to speak English before school.
5. Ask if he was able to ski or skate before he was a schoolboy.
“Must” и его эквивалент “to have to do something”
Exercise: Ask your desk mate these questions; let him/her answer them.
For example: Ask your desk mate if he/she cleans his/her room
himself/herself or anybody else has to do it.
P1: Do you clean your room yourself or does anybody else have to clean it?
P2: My grandmother has to do it.
1. Ask if he makes his bed himself or anyone in the family has to make it.
2. Ask if he wakes up in the morning himself or his parents have to wake
him up.
3. Ask if she helps her grandmother prepare breakfast or she has to do it
herself.
4. Ask if she helps her mother lay and clear the table or her mother has to
do it herself.
5. Ask if she goes to the shop to buy bread and milk or her parents have to
do all the shopping.
6. Ask if he washes the clothes his clothes himself or his mother has to do
all the washing.
7. Ask if he goes to bed on his own or his parents have to send him to bed.
8. Ask if he must know English well.
9. Ask if he has to learn English every day.
10. Ask if he must get ready for all school subjects.
11. Ask if he must attend school clubs.
12. Ask if he has to have dinner at school.
Exercise: Try to find a Russian equivalent to each of these proverbs.
1. Don’t put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
2. If you want to eat fruit, you must learn to climb a tree.
3. You never know what you can do till you try.
4. You can’t eat your cake and have it.
5. As you make your bed, so you must lie on it.
6. One cannot please everyone.
7. Friendship cannot stand always on one side.
8. One must not believe all he hears.
9. You must learn to creep before you walk.
10. An unbidden guest must bring his chair with him.
А). Не верь всему, что слышишь.
Б). Всем не угодишь.
В). Любишь кататься, люби и саночки возить.
Г). Незваный гость хуже татарина.
Д). Что с возу упало, то пропало.
Е). Не откладывай на завтра то, что можно сделать сегодня.
Ж). Дружба любит взаимность.
З). Научись ползать, прежде чем научиться ходить.
И). Попытка не пытка.
К). Что посеешь, то и пожнёшь.
Modal phrases.
“Would rather” expresses choice.
Read and memorize!
1. I would rather stay at home then go to the cinema.
It’s raining.
2. I would rather go by bus than walk home.
3. Tom would rather do his lessons than watch TV. He is hard working.
4. The children would rather play in the garden than go to bed.
5. Would you rather write a composition or a dictation?
“Had better” expresses advice.
1. You had better take an umbrella. It may rain.
2. He’d better stop and have a rest if he feels tired.
3. You had better go on the excursion.
4. You had better hurry if you want to catch the eight o’clock train.
5. You had better put on a new dress for the party.
Exercise: Construct the dialogues out of the given words and word
combinations.
Pattern:
Situation: Gloria has caught a cold but in spite of it she is going surfing.
- had better, go surfing, not, Gloria.
- take medicine, than, would rather, she, go surfing.
- She would rather go surfing than take medicine.
Situation 1. Dick doesn’t want to show his suffering from some illness.
- had better, what, Dick, hurts him, tell.
- would rather, than, he, die, complain.
Situation 2. Nora is taking an exam in her music class tomorrow.
- had better, tonight, she, have a good rest.
- would rather, go to bed, than, she, practice the piano.
Situation 3. Bert is to have his exam in literature/
- classical literature, read, had better, he.
- read, he, detective stories, would rather.
Situation 4. Alice is eager to discuss the party with Tracy over the
telephone in spite of the late hour.
- no, Alice, Tracy, call, had better, late, so.
- wake Tracy up, would rather, till morning, wait, than, she.
Situation 5. Modern art doesn’t appeal to Maggy, she criticizes it.
- criticize, study it, modern art, had better not, Maggy, but.
- than study it, be ignorant, would rather, she.
Situation 6. The telephone rings in the middle of an interesting film on TV.
- answer, had better, the telephone call, you.
- take the receiver, I, until the film is over, would rather not.
Список литературы:
Английский язык: Интенсивный курс: Учебник для 11 кл.
общеобразовательных учреждений / Л.Г. Денисова, М.З.
Биболетова.- М.: Просвещение, 1997г.
Б. М. Плискина, А. А. Руд, Е.И. Чапник. «Структурные модели
английского языка»: Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной
речи.-М.: «Высшая школа», 1989 г.