Презентация "Linking Words and their functions"


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Linking Words

Linking Words and their functions

Малыхина Татьяна Николаевна

учитель английского языка

ЧОУ «Елизаветинская гимназия»

г. Москва

2014

Linking Words

Position in the text

The function of

linking words

Grammatical differences

Position in the text

and       but            so         because          then             until      such as

 

Some linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words:

 

Another type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words usually followed by a comma:

Furthermore, Moreover, However, Nevertheless, Therefore, In conclusion

The functions of linking words

Linking devices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how the parts of the text relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words provide:

                  • adding extra information to the main point contrasting ideas
  • expressing cause and effect
  • showing exactly when something happened, expressing purpose (why?) and opinion listing examples
  • making conclusions and giving emphasis.

Some linking words must be followed by a clause

Grammatical differences

    because of     despite     during       in spite of

Other linking words should be followed by a noun

Linking word + (the) + Noun/Pronoun or gerund

Subject + Verb + Object

while    why   because    although  so  whereas  when

Adding

However,

Although

In spite of

Nevertheless,

On the contrary,

on the one hand

on the other hand,

whereas

While

In contrast,

Neither...nor

as well as

besides

Furthermore,

What is more,

In addition,

not only .... but also

Moreover,

another point is that

Contrasting

Expressing cause /reason

because

as

since

This is why

because of

Due to

Owing to

For this reason,

Expressing effect /result

so....that

such a...that

Therefore

Thus

Consequently,

As a result,

too...for/to

not enough...for/to

Narration

First (of all)

At first

In the beginning

then

next

Before

After that

afterwards

When

While

during

Soon

immediately

Once

Suddenly

As soon as

on

No sooner....than

Hardly...when

Finally

Eventually

At the end

In the end

At last

To begin with,

until

Expressing

purpose

to

so as to

in order that

so that

for (Non-specific)

Expressing opinion

I would say that

In my opinion,

I think (that)

I believe (that)

Personally

Apparently,

 

Giving examples

for example,

for instance,

For one thing,

this includes,

such as (for example),

i.e. (that is)

Summing up

/concluding

All in all

overall

generally

In conclusion,

on the whole

in the main

To sum up,

Emphasis

especially

particularly

Naturally,

exactly because

above all

Whatever

Whenever

too / enough

The more ....

Write the sentence again, using the word in brackets. The meaning must stay exactly the same

1. In spite of not having eaten for 24 hours, I didn't feel hungry.

__________________________________________________________________(even though)

2. Despite her injured foot, she managed to walk to the village.

___________________________________________________________________ (although)

3. The football match is still going on.

___________________________________________________________________ (yet)

4. Has Jane got divorced yet?

___________________________________________________________________ (still)

5. Jack used to have long hair and a beard.

___________________________________________________________________ (no longer)

6. I was feeling tired.

___________________________________________________________________ (any longer)

7. I wish I could speak English as well as you do.

___________________________________________________________________ (like)

8. Both in January and in February, the price of basic foods rose.

___________________________________________________________________ (as)

9. He had hoped to do better in the examination.

___________________________________________________________________ (as....as)

10. John is younger than he looks.

___________________________________________________________________ (as....as)

11. Tom is 16 years old, and so is Fred.

___________________________________________________________________ (as....as)

12. He used to be a doctor.

___________________________________________________________________ (as)

13. You're not reading that newspaper. Can I read it?

___________________________________________________________________ (as)

14. He was sitting on the beach when the sun rose.

___________________________________________________________________ (as)

15. You can go to the party if you don't come home very late.

___________________________________________________________________ (as....as)

16. When he arrives, we'll go.

___________________________________________________________________ (as....as)

17. They think that he is the best person for the job.

___________________________________________________________________ (as)

18. She is a very good English speaker. You would think it was her native language.

___________________________________________________________________ (so)

19. There were so many people in the room that we couldn't move.

___________________________________________________________________ (such)

20. We missed the film because there was such a lot of traffic.

___________________________________________________________________ (so)

21. I can't wear this coat in winter, It's not warm enough.

___________________________________________________________________ (too)

22. When he speaks English, I can't understand what he says.

___________________________________________________________________ (enough)

23. We lost the match although we the better team.

___________________________________________________________________ (despite))

Использованные источники

http://www.vivquarry.com/wkshts/linkwdex.html

http://www.vivquarry.com/wkshts/linkwd.html

Good luck!