Презентация "Pronouns In Old English" 11 класс


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pronouns

Pronouns

In Old English

The characteristic features of pronouns is not only their lexical meaning but their use to that of a noun and an adjective.

The characteristic features of pronouns is not only their lexical meaning but their use to that of a noun and an adjective.

1. the presence of a dual number of pronouns of the 1st and the 2nd person

  • 1. the presence of a dual number of pronouns of the 1st and the 2nd person
  • 2. the absence of possessive pronouns. Instead of them there is a form of Genitive case of the personal pronoun
  • 3. the presence of a special group of the definite pronouns that have already (almost) lost their main meaning of definite pronoun, having formed in the definite article
  • 4. the saving of Accusative case in the separate groups of pronouns

Proprieties of

Pronouns

The groups of Pronouns

personal

demonstrative

interrogative

negative

indefinite

Declension of personal pronouns

person

case/

number

singular

dual

plural

1st

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

ic

mīn

mec, mē

wit

uncer

unc

uncit

ūre, ūser

ūs

ūsic, ūs

2nd

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

Þu

Þin

Þe

Þēc, Þē

ȝit

incer

inc

incit, inc

ȝē

ēowr

ēow

ēowic, ēow

singular

plural

3rd

M

F

N

all genders

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

his

him

hine

hēo,hīo

hire,hiere

hire, hiere

hie, hi, hȳ

hit

his

him

hit

hīe, hī, hȳ, hēo

hire, heora, hierra, hyra

him, heom

hīe, hī, hȳ, hēo

The OE personal pronoun ‘heo’ was replaced by ‘sho’ or ‘she’ from the OE demonstrative ‘seo’ used in the north-East; the 3rd person plural ‘hie’ was replaced by the Scandinavian ‘they’.

The OE personal pronoun ‘heo’ was replaced by ‘sho’ or ‘she’ from the OE demonstrative ‘seo’ used in the north-East; the 3rd person plural ‘hie’ was replaced by the Scandinavian ‘they’.

Declension of demonstrative pronouns

case

singular

plural

M

F

N

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

Instr.

sē, se

Þǣs

Þǣm, Þām

Þone

Þy, Þon

seo

Þǣre

Þǣre

Þā

Þǣre

Þǣt

Þǣs

Þǣm, Þām

Þǣt

Þy, Þon

Þa

ÞNegative pronounsra, Þǣra

Þām, Þǣm

Þā

Þǣm, Þām

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

Instr.

Þēs

Þises

Þisum

Þisne

Þisse

Þēos

Þisse

Þisse

Þās

Þīsse

Þis

Þisses

Þisum

Þis

Þisse

Þās

Þissa

Þisum

Þās

Þisum

Declension of interrogative pronouns

case

gender

Masculine

Neuter

Nom.

hwā

hwæt

Gen.

hwæs

Dat.

hwǣm

Acc.

hwone

hwæt

Instr.

hwȳ

Declension of Indefinite and Negative pronouns

Declension of Indefinite and Negative pronouns

Indefinite pronouns: sum, ǣniȝ, ȝehwā, swilc, ǣlc, ǣȝber, sē ilca

Negative pronouns developed from the phrases: ne+ān > nān, ne + ǣniȝ > nǣniȝ

Endings of Pronouns

  • 1. –m, Dative case, Singular, Masculine and Neuter
  • 2. –re, Genitive and Dative cases, Singular, Feminine
  • 3. –ne, Accusative case, Singular, Masculine
  • 4. –ra, Genitive case, Plural, three genders