Almost hundred years ago, in the beginning 1908, first American cinemas manufacturers were pulled from a cradle of the national film-industry - New York on the Western coast, to California. So there was Hollywood - great " factory of dreams " and capital of illusions. The word Hollywood is formed from English words падуб - "остролист" and a wood - "wood". In 1886 certain Дейда Уилконс from Канзас Сити together with the husband has staked out a site of the ground in vicinities Лос -Анджелеса, having named its his Hollywood. In some years spouses began to lease the ground, and to 1930 around of ranch has grown the whole settlement attached to Лос Анджелесу as suburb.
. The first cinematographer who has stepped into the ground of Hollywood, was William Zelig , which has bought purchased a part of the ground to place on it her branch of the Chicago cinema of the company. The most powerful in the world the center of film production has resulted from so-called patent war. The well-known inventor Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) who have thought up besides other devices for shooting and display of pictures, possessed patents for the opening. Everyone who uses results of another's opening, should for it pay.
In Edison's studio. While the cinema was mute, film crews had no separate premises rooms and worked on one pavilion which has been partitioned off by plywood partitions. 1912-1913
Cinemas grew in the beginning of XX century as mushrooms after a rain; by the end of their first decade it was totaled in America over ten thousand - almost more, than in all Europe. They referred to " nickel одеонами " (" пятицентовыми as cinemas ") and brought the good income: the businessman who has bought purchased " nickel одеон " for two thousand dollars, in three months returned the money. When Edison's firm has started to experience financial difficulties, the inventor has decided to correct for business affairs, having forced to pay those who used its his devices.
However owners of cinemas and прокатчики did not hasten hurry to leave money. In court they answered Edison's each reference manipulation counterclaims. So " patent war " has inflamed legal. To win for certain, Edison's firm was united with other companies also owned a number line of patents. Has arisen " Моушн пикчерз the patent компани " (МППК) (often this company named Simply patent trust). It she has tried to take completely under the control manufacture and hire of films. On December, 24th, 1908 on demand of trust police Нью of York has closed in city more than five hundred " nickel одеонов ", not paid "tribute". This day has become history of the American cinema under the name " black Christmas ".
In some months the trust has distributed the influence on the most part of the American cinema of the market. Not obeyed cinemas businessmen (them began to name "independent") too were united. Between МППК and " are independent ми " the present true fight has begun. Agents of the company, not being content with judicial measures, broke projectors, filled in a sulfuric acid in tanks for development of a film.
Once on shootings of "independent" film they have provoked fight between supernumeraries after which some actors have got in hospital with серьёзными wounds. Film production concentrated then in New York and Chicago. To avoid prosecutions from МППК, "independent" in the end 1907 - the beginning 1908 began to get over far away from these cities - on the Western coast. It he grew fond Hollywood - owing to a soft climate, an abundance of sunny days necessary for shooting, picturesqueness of neighboring landscapes: mountains, woods, deserts where it was possible - to play the diversified plots.
. In 1909 on Hollywood Мишироуд pavilions of the first stationary film studio have grown. And in the autumn 1911 the Hungarian emigrant William Foke (1879-1952) - the former tailor and the future co-owner of a movie company " XX century Fox " - the beginnings unknown in history of the film-industry the action share . It he has submitted the counterclaim on judicial claims МППК. The patent company has finished the days disgracefully. In 1912 the candidate for presidents of the country Thomas Vudro Wilson has won elections, having put forward the program of struggle against monopolies. МППК it has been accused of monopolism and under the decision of court it is dismissed.
However even before this event Hollywood has started to supersede gradually the opponent from the market of the film-industry as has organized manufacture of qualitative production, more attractive for spectators. In people it is inherent again and again to address to that was grew fond by it him, - Hollywood and has based founded; established the strategy on this propensity of the person. If public liked the executor, after to the first picture the following with its his participation were started; actor's fees which stinted hard-fisted МППК grew.
So Hollywood has generated system of stars - highly paid actors, the idols of the public acting in one grown fond spectator of role set of time. Before names of the first American actors appeared on the screen, almost were never mentioned in credits.
If to public any character suited taste, it she could count on new meetings with it him. The Same occurred happened to plots attractive to it her . In general, Hollywood has won because has opened and has in practice managed to realize a principle of a batch production of films