Презентация "French borrowings In English"


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French borrowings

French borrowings

  • In English
  • 5508 group

The periodization of borrowings

  • In XII-XV centuries the leader of borrowings is the sphere related to the description of human feelings, because there is an increase of interest to the person. During this period the words related to military and science also were borrowed.
  • The Norman conquest has found its reflection also in vocabulary related to school training, science and learning.
  • By the end of XV century the quantity of the words describing the various phenomena of industry, trade, political life appeared.

Means of borrowing

  • Phonetical borrowings: corps, echelon, brochure, chateau, bureau, ragout, cuisine
  • Translation loans: literature, empire, government, manœuvre
  • Semantic borrowings: sky-scrapper
  • Morthemic borrowings: ignorance, princess, government

Borrowing of French words

  • There are the following semantic groups of French borrowings:
  • words related to government : empire, state, government;
  • words related to military affairs: army, soldier, battle;
  • words related to jury: advocate, petition, sentence;
  • words related to fashion: luxury, collar;
  • words related to jewelry: topaz, pearl ;
  • words related to food and cooking: dinner, appetite.

The degree of assimilation of borrowings

  • Completely assimilated borrowings
  • Partly assimilated borrowings:
    • Non-assimilated semantically
    • Non-assimilated grammaticaly
    • Non-assimilated phonetically
  • Non-assimilated (called ‘barbarisms’)

Completely assimilated borrowings

  • Army – arm (корень от фр. armée) + y (diminutive suffixe)
  • Soldier – sold (корень от фр. soldat) + i (?) + er (suffixe)
  • State – stat (корень от фр. status) + e (ending)
  • Empire – от фр. empire
  • Dinner – от фр. dinner
  • Petition – от фр. pétition
  • Collar – col (корень от фр. col) + lar (suffixe)
  • Appetite –от фр. appetite
  • Pearl – от фр. perles
  • Advocate – ad (prefixe) +voc (корень от фр. avocat) + ate (Romanic suffixe)
  • Battle – bat (корень от фр. bataille) + tle (suf)

Semantic groups of the partly-assimilated borrowings

  • Words were borrowed from French into English after 1650, mainly through the French literature, but they are not as numerous and many of them are not completely assimilated. There are the following semantic groups of these borrowings:
  • words related to literature and music: belle-lettres, brochure, nuance;
  • words related to military affairs: corps, echelon, manouvre
  • words related to buildings and furniture: chateau, bureau;
  • words related to food and cooking: ragout, cuisine.

Partly assimilated borrowings:

  • Brochure – от фр. brochure
  • Government - от фр. gouvernement
  • Topaz – от фр. topaze
  • Belle-lettres – от фр. belle-lettres
  • Nuance – от фр. nuance
  • Echelon – от фр. echelon
  • Manoeuvre – от фр. manoeuvre
  • Bureau – от фр. bureau

Non-assimilated phonetically:

  • Corps – от фр. Corps
  • Belle-lettres – от фр. belle-lettres

Non-assimilated semantically:

  • Ragout – от франц ragoût
  • Cuisine – от фр Cuisine

Ways of borrowing

  • Historical ways
  • Psychological factors
  • Development of the literature
  • Development of science and technology

Historical ways of borrowing

  • Norman conquests gave to the English language:
  • words related to military affairs: army, soldier, battle;
  • words related to government : empire, state, government;
  • words related to food and cooking: dinner

Psycological factors

  • Many borrowing from French appeared in this period because after about 1250 there were more French speakers who began speaking English — remember the loss of Normandy in 1204.
  • words related to government : government, state, empire
  • words related to jury: advocate, petition
  • words related to military affairs: army, battle, soldier
  • words related to fashion: collar,
  • words related to jewelry: topaz, pearl;
  • words related to food and cooking: appetite

The development of the literature

  • words related to literature and music: belle-lettres, brochure, nuance;
  • words related to military affairs: corps, echelon, manoeuvre;
  • words related to buildings and furniture: chateau, bureau;
  • words related to food and cooking: ragout, cuisine.

The development of science and technology

  • This tendency gives berth to neologisms:
  • Discotheque (от фр. discothèque)
  • Cinematheque (от фр. cinémathèque)
  • Government (от фр. gouvernement)

The stylistics and connotation of borrowings.

  • Words related to government :
  • empire - written speech; literary language; conn.-elevated
  • state – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • government – spoken/written speech; literary language; in the domain of politics; conn.-neutral

Words related to military affairs:

  • army – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn. - neutral;
  • soldier – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • battle - written speech; literary language; conn.-elevated
  • corps - written speech; literary language; conn.-elevated
  • echelon - written speech; literary language; conn.-elevated
  • manoeuvre - spoken\ written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;

Words related to jury:

  • advocate – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • petition - written speech; literary language; marked.
  • sentence - written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral

Words related to fashion:

  • luxury - spoken speech; colloquial;
  • collar - spoken speech ; colloquial; conn.-neutral

Words related to jewelry:

  • topaz - written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • pearl - written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral

Words related to food and cooking:

  • dinner – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • appetite – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • ragout - spoken speech; colloquial; conn.-neutral
  • cuisine - written speech; literary language; conn.-elevated;

Words related to literature

  • belle-lettres - written speech; literary language; language of linguists;conn.-elevated;
  • brochure – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • nuance – spoken/written speech;colloquial

Words related to buildings and furniture:

  • chateau – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-elevated;
  • bureau – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;

The Norman Conquest

  • court – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral;
  • nobility - written speech; literary language; conn.-elevated;
  • polite society - written speech; literary language; conn.elevated;
  • literature – spoken/written speech; literary language; conn.-neutral.

Authors:

  • The periodization of borrowings
  • Ways of borrowings
  • The degree of assimilation of borrowings
  • Semantic groups of French borrowings
  • The degree of assimilation of borrowings
  • The stylistics and connotation of borrowings
  • Assemblage and presentation
  • Means of borrowing
  • Белова Надежда
  • Дацыкова Анна, Белова Надежда
  • Дацыкова Анна
  • Кудинова Наталия
  • Анофриева Ирина
  • Быстрова Татьяна
  • Березина Наталия
  • Никитченко Марат