Презентация "Linking words and their functions" 11 класс
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and their functions
Фадеева Юлия Владимировна
Учитель английского языка
МКОУ «Таёжнинская средняя школа №7»
in the text
of linking words
Position in the text
Some linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words:
and but so because then until such as
Another type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words usually followed by a comma:
Furthermore, Moreover, However, Nevertheless,
Therefore, In conclusion,
The function of linking words
Linking devices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how the parts of the text relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words provide.
- Adding extra information to the main point
- contrasting ideas
- expressing cause and effect
- showing exactly when something happened, expressing purpose (why?) and opinion
- listing examples
- making conclusions and giving emphasis.
Some linking words must be followed by a clause Subject + Verb + Object
while why because although so whereas when
Other linking words should be followed by a noun
Linking word + (the) + Noun/Pronoun or gerund
because of despite during in spite of
- as well as
- What is more,
- In addition,
- not only .... but also
- another point is that
In spite of
On the contrary,
on the one hand
on the other hand,
Expressing cause /reason
This is why
For this reason,
Expressing effect /result
As a result,
First (of all)
In the beginning
As soon as
At the end
In the end
To begin with,
so as to
in order that
I would say that
In my opinion,
I think (that)
I believe (that)
For one thing,
such as (for example),
i.e. (that is)
All in all
on the whole
in the main
To sum up,
too / enough
The more ....
Write the sentence again, using the word in brackets. The meaning must stay exactly the same
1. She is a very good English speaker. You would think it was her native language.
2. There were so many people in the room that we couldn't move.
3. We missed the film because there was such a lot of traffic.
4. I can't wear this coat in winter, It's not warm enough.
5. When he speaks English, I can't understand what he says.
6. We lost the match although we we the better team.
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