Презентация "Linking words and their functions" 11 класс


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Linking Words

Linking Words

and their functions

Фадеева Юлия Владимировна

Учитель английского языка

МКОУ «Таёжнинская средняя школа №7»

Красноярский край

11 класс

Linking devices

 

Position

in the text

The function

of linking words

Grammatical

differences

Position in the text

Some linking words normally form a link between clauses WITHIN a sentence. It is bad style to start a sentence with these words:

 

and       but            so         because          then             until             such as

 

 

Another type of linking device is used to form a link BETWEEN sentences. These words usually followed by a comma:

 

Furthermore,     Moreover,     However,     Nevertheless,     

 Therefore,        In conclusion,

The function of linking words

Linking devices are neither nouns, nor verbs. They provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how the parts of the text relate to each other. Here are some of the functions which linking words provide.

  • Adding extra information to the main point
  • contrasting ideas
  • expressing cause and effect
  • showing exactly when something happened, expressing purpose (why?) and opinion
  • listing examples
  • making conclusions and giving emphasis.

Grammatical differences

Some linking words must be followed by a clause Subject + Verb + Object

while    why          because    although  so    whereas  when

Other linking words should be followed by a noun

Linking word + (the) + Noun/Pronoun or gerund

    because of     despite     during       in spite of

Adding

  • as well as
  • besides
  • Moreover,
  • Furthermore,
  • What is more,
  • In addition,
  • not only .... but also
  • another point is that

Contrasting

However,

Although

In spite of

Nevertheless,

On the contrary,

on the one hand

on the other hand,

whereas

While

In contrast,

Neither...nor

Expressing cause /reason

because

as

since

This is why

because of

Due to

Owing to

For this reason,

Expressing effect /result

so....that

such a...that

Therefore

Thus

Consequently,

As a result,

too...for/to

not enough...for/to

Narration

First (of all)

At first

In the beginning

then

next

Before

After that

afterwards

When

While

during

Soon

immediately

Once

Suddenly

As soon as

on

No sooner....than

Hardly...when

Finally

Eventually

At the end

In the end

At last

To begin with,

until

Expressing purpose

to

so as to

in order that

so that

for (Non-specific)

I would say that

In my opinion,

I think (that)

I believe (that)

Personally

Apparently,

 

Expressing opinion

Giving examples

for example,

for instance,

For one thing,

this includes,

such as (for example),

i.e. (that is)

Summing up

/concluding

All in all

overall

generally

In conclusion,

on the whole

in the main

To sum up,

Emphasis

especially

particularly

Naturally,

exactly because

above all

Whatever

Whenever

too / enough

The more ....

Write the sentence again, using the word in brackets. The meaning must stay exactly the same

1. She is a very good English speaker. You would think it was her native language.

___________________________________________________________________ (so)

2. There were so many people in the room that we couldn't move.

___________________________________________________________________ (such)

3. We missed the film because there was such a lot of traffic.

___________________________________________________________________ (so)

4. I can't wear this coat in winter, It's not warm enough.

___________________________________________________________________ (too)

5. When he speaks English, I can't understand what he says.

___________________________________________________________________ (enough)

6. We lost the match although we we the better team.

___________________________________________________________________ (despite)

Использованные источники

  • http://odintsovo.biz/img/catalog/yellow/urisconsult.gif
  • https://otvet.imgsmail.ru/download/49970690_de6f6cce363e388e0547d7fadcac206b_800.gif
  • http://www.cliparthut.com/clip-arts/1341/animated-hourglass-clip-art-1341495.gif
  • http://mediaturbo.com/images/dart.gif
  • http://s01.yapfiles.ru/files/17917/dlyamerii.gif
  • http://www.shkola41.edusite.ru/images/voskznak.gif
  • http://web42.info/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/linkepites.jpg
  • http://www.vivquarry.com/wkshts/linkwdex.html
  • http://www.vivquarry.com/wkshts/linkwd.html

Good luck!