Презентация "Образцы письменных высказываний с элементами рассуждения"


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Муниципальное казенное общеобразовательное учреждение «Кировский лицей» Калужской области

  • Образцы письменных высказываний с элементами рассуждения.
  • Подготовка учащихся к ЕГЭ и олимпиадам
  • по английскому языку.
  • Подготовила
  • Цветкова Алла Николаевна
  • учитель английского языка
  • МКОУ «Кировский лицей»

Содержание:

  • 1. Некоторые приемы работы при обучении написанию сочинения –рассуждения:
  • 1.1. ознакомление учащихся с требованиями, предъявляемыми к написанию сочинения –рассуждения.
  • 1.2. составление опоры с фразами-клише по структуре текста для решения коммуникативной задачи.
  • 1.3. выведение на высказывание «за» и «против».
  • 2. Образцы сочинений-рассуждений:
  • 2.1. тексты с аргументацией «за» и «против». 2.2. тексты с элементами рассуждения.
  • 2.3. тексты с интерпретацией крылатых фраз и пословиц.

1. Некоторые приемы работы при обучении написанию сочинения –рассуждения:

  • 1.1.Ознакомление учащихся с требованиями, предъявляемыми к написанию сочинения –рассуждения.

Письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения является заданием с высоким уровнем сложности. Подготовка к выполнению такого задания также представляет определенные трудности . Прежде всего учащимся необходимо четко разъяснить, что в сочинении -рассуждении необходимо продемонстрировать умение решить коммуникативную задачу по предложенном плану , т.е.:

  • -сформулировать проблему ; - высказать свое мнение, эмоции и чувства ; - привести аргументы, доказательства; - продемонстрировать выразительность речи; - продемонстрировать логику, адекватно используя средства связи; - правильно сделать вывод .
  • Далее, учащиеся должны четко представлять, что с точки зрения организации текста сочинения-рассуждения могут быть двух типов:
  • текст с аргументацией «за» и «против» и текст с элементами рассуждения.
  • Независимо от типа, текст должен содержать введение, основную часть и заключение.

Характерные черты текста с аргументацией «за» и «против»: (также прорабатываются и записываются с учащимися).

  • Введение лучше начать с общего представления темы и предложения, выражающего еe двойственный характер. Основная часть содержит представление аргументов «за», а затем - аргументов «против» или наоборот. Аргументы могут быть представлены в отдельных абзацах, но желательно представить их симметрично. Аргументация должна быть сбалансированной с обозначением экономических, моральных и социальных аспектов. Заключение должно четко подвести итог сказанному выше и содержать предложение, отражающее противоречивость темы, а также выражающее надежду на нахождение компромисса.

  . Характерные черты текста с элементами рассуждения (прорабатываются и записываются с учащимися аналогично).

  • Введение можно начать с перефразирования проблемы , заявленной в теме, используя, например, пословицу или афоризм. Закончить – вопросом или фразой-клише о рассмотрении проблемы.
  • Основная часть содержит свое мнение по данным вопросам (положительное или отрицательное) с аргументацией по различным аспектам : экономическим, моральным и социальным. Далее отдельным абзацем следует иное мнение с опровержением. Каждый абзац должен начинаться предложением, выражающим его основную мысль.
  • Заключение в связи с более философским характером текста обобщает высказанное и делает заключение, строго соотносящееся с введением и соответствующее теме.

Контроль объёма текста

  • Ещё один аспект, с которым необходимо ознакомить учащихся ,-это требуемый объём для развернутого письменного высказывания - 200-250 слов. Допустимое отклонение от заданного объёма- 10%. Если в задании менее 200 слов , задание не проверяется; если более 275 слов, проверяется только та часть работы, которая соответствует требуемому объёму. Учащимся следует контролировать объем текста, придерживаясь заданных параметров. Необходимо отследить, сколько слов приходится на одну строку при конкретном почерке. Можно также зрительно запомнить, сколько места на странице занимает текст, содержащий , к примеру, 200 слов. Это поможет сориентироваться на экзамене и скорректировать объём.

1.2. Составление опоры с фразами-клише по структуре текста для решения коммуникативной задачи.

Структура текста Фразы-клише

  • -формулировка проблемы во введении;
  • -выражение своего мнения, эмоций и чувств ;
  • -перечисление аргументов, доказательств; -введение противоположного мнения, опровержения; - демонстрация выразительности речи; -демонстрация логики, адекватное использование средств связи;
  • -вывод в заключении
  • - There is an opinion that…while others think… It`s common knowledge … but some people are against … The popularity of…is increasingly rising … Let`s outline the problem.
  • -As far as I`m concerned,…I personally think… I strongly believe … In my opinion… As for me… To my mind… I hope …There are some reasons why
  • -To begin with, Then, Also, Firstly, Secondly, what`s more , more than that, Finally, -On the other hand,… In contrast… I can`t completely agree that … I agree, but let`s look at it this way…
  • - идиомы ,крылатые и вводные фразы;
  • -союзы и союзные слова (but, while, so,because, that`s why, though, meanwhile, however ;
  • -In conclusion I`d like to say… To sum up,… All things considered, … It`s up to you to decide whether to… or not…but… It`s not so easy to dot every “i” and cross every “t” but…

1.3. Выведение на высказывание «за» и «против».

  • Работая над любой темой, после присвоения лексики и грамматики для её обеспечения , представляется разумным выйти на высказывание или диалогическую речь с противоположными мнениями, чтобы в дальнейшем использовать это в письменном высказывании. Выход на высказывание «за» и «против» начинается ещё в 6 классе, а в 8 классе уже можно предлагать написать сочинение-рассуждение , правда меньшее по объёму. Так, в изучении темы «Быть вместе» восьмиклассникам было предложено обсуждение проблемы «Why people use mobile phones? Your ideas «for» and «against» с обязательным употреблением новых лексических единиц и грамматических структур (на слайде выделены красным цветом). Далее было предложено на уроке вместе написать сочинение рассуждение «Is it OK to use a mobile?»( фразы-клише в СФЕ на слайде выделены жирным шрифтом).

Why people use mobile phones? Your ideas «for» and «against».

  • for
  • Mobiles are the perfect way to organize last-minute parties: text, wait & everyone will be at your house.
  • I don`t talk long , I just make plans with my friends.
  • I just call my dearest & nearest to congratulate them on birthday & wish them good luck or a long life.
  • A cell phone is a must-have thing to everyone to keep in touch.
  • I use my mobile to tell my mum I`m OK or if I`m running late.
  • I-phones can be used to surf the Internet at any place you need.
  • It`s a necessary in emergencies: for example, to call the police or an ambulance.
  • аgainst
  • Children are just wasting time & money on them.
  • Girls got used to mobiles stuck to their ears & often use it for silly chats.
  • I don`t see the real need to carry mobiles everywhere . It could damage your health.
  • I`m concerned about the fact when your phone suddenly goes off during the lesson & disturbs others.
  • We got used to the fact that mobile is more important than face to face communication. I don`t think it`s right.
  • It`s silly to demonstrate it: it can be a target to thieves
  • I`m not sure when & where it`s acceptable to make a MPh call. I think only older people should have them.

Is it OK to use a mobile?

  • The popularity of a mobile phone is increasingly rising nowadays. Teens got used to it stuck to ears while some people are against it. Let`s outline the problem.
  • I personally think a mobile is a must-have thing and there are some reasons why. To begin with, it`s necessary in emergencies : for example, to call the police or an ambulance. Then, I don`t use it for silly chats. I just call my dearest & nearest to congratulate them on birthday. Moreover, I use my mobile to tell my mum I`m OK or if I`m running late. Lastly, I-phones make it possible to surf the Internet or have an electronic dictionary to hand.
  • On the other hand, some people don`t see the real need to have mobiles everywhere. They think it`s not good when a mobile suddenly goes off and disturbs others. They also think it can be a target for thieves. I can`t completely agree and believe that a mobile is a perfect way to keep in touch. In conclusion I`d like to say that it`s up to you to decide whether to use it or not but we can`t imagine our life without a cell phone.

2. Образцы сочинений-рассуждений.

  • Учитель сам должен четко представлять, какой речевой продукт необходимо получить . Поэтому ему представляется разумным готовить образцы сочинений- рассуждений и предлагать их учащимся как на английском, так и на русском языке с последующим переводом самими учащимися, используя речевой материал раздела.

2.1. Тексты с аргументацией «за» и «против».

  • Далее на слайдах представлены образцы текста с аргументацией «за» и «против» с симметричным представлением аргументов и «What does the future hold?» « Dieting: for and against.» , которые были предложены учащимся после изучения разделов «Чей это мир» в 11 классе и «В здоровом теле – здоровый дух» в 9 классе.

What does the future hold?

  • What is our life going to be in 50 year`s time? Some people are quite optimistic about the future while others predict the end of the world. Let`s juxtapose these opposite points of view.
  • It stands for reason that scientific advances made our life high-tech. Pessimists suppose that multy –purpose robots will replace people and cause unseen unemployment. As for optimists, they believe in a user -friendly world. They think robots, computers and other smart devices will make our life easier and more comfortable. Moreover, efficient sources of energy will raise living standards and erase the gap between the rich and the poor.
  • Then, from a pessimistic point of view our planet is in a spell of negative social processes such as total pollution, global nuclear war, terrorism and criminals. What`s more, genetically modified food will ruin our health. But let`s look at it this way. Doctors are about to invent new medicine to fight incurable diseases like AIDS or cancer. Furthermore, special vaccine will make it possible to prolong human life. Optimists strongly believe that thanks to a good will people will stop wars and the world become more tolerant.
  • In сonclusion I`d like to quote Niels Bohr `s words :” Prediction is very difficult, especially if it is about the future”. Predict in favour of progress anyway since the dearest dreams have a property to come true .

Dieting: for and against.

  • One should eat to live, not live to eat.
  • It`s fashionable today to lead a healthy lifestyle and be as fit as a fiddle. In order to be healthy and fit some people go to the gym while others prefer to go on a diet. The purpose this report is to juxtapose any good or bad points of dieting.
  • In fact, controlling what you eat is not so bad. I mean healthy diet when we eat less fat and cut down on sugar or salt. But we should remember that fats and sugar are main sources of energy. In the hectic world of today, we can`t do without energy so we should be careful in limiting these ingredients. Then, going on a diet is a good way of loosing weight especially for girls. It`s not only controlling but cutting down more and more food. But let`s look at it this way. Having a bee in their bonnet about a slim figure girls stop eating meat, bread and milk products or refuse to eat at all. Lack of starch, proteins or fiber can result in anorexia or even in death. A humorist once wrote that the word “diet” comes from the word “to die”. Lastly, I am for special diets using in treatment of serious diseases when there is something wrong with your liver or stomach though it`s not easy to give up favorite and tasty food even if it contains harmful ingredients.
  • In conclusion I`d like to say that in spite of its bad points dieting is still popular in female community but it`s a fashion rather than necessity . I think people should keep to a diet only in case of need.

2.2. Тексты с элементами рассуждения.

  • Написание сочинений, содержащих элементы рассуждения, - также непростая задача, особенно если речь идет о моральных и нравственных ценностях , таких как любовь, дружба, доверительные отношения, и где экономические факторы некорректны. Ниже приведен образец сочинения-рассуждения для выполнения тренировочного задания ЕГЭ, сформулированного следующим образом: «Rare people can do without friendship because it makes our life brighter. Do you believe in a long-life friendship?»
  • Ещё один образец представляет собой трансформацию текста «Dieting: for and against» из сочинения «за» и «против», в сочинение, содержащее элементы рассуждения.

  • “Be slow in choosing a friend and slower in changing”. B. Franklin. Such a strange and precious thing is friendship! It is а feeling and behavior that exists between people and becomes stronger and stronger as the years go by. But there are pessimists who don’t believe in a real friendship. Let`s outline the problem. I share the view that a life- long friendship exists in real life and I have a good example to illustrate my opinion. I mean my grandfather and his best friend. To begin with, they have known each other from the first grade and nowadays they are in their early sixties. Despite the fact that they live in different cities and don’t have an opportunity to spend much time together, there is a close invisible link between them. It’s true that they meet every two years in our native town and I guess it’s bright recollections from their childhood and adolescence that make them do it. Besides, they never criticize each other’s lifestyle whereas disagreements and arguments sometimes occur. They are always ready to be there for each other. In contrast, there are people who think the other way round and whose slogan is “hi-bye” relations. Firstly, they like the idea that everything changes and as a result during their lifetime people may have a lot of different mates. Secondly, they forget about reliability, respect, tolerance and devotedness . They can do without these remarkable things and even betrayal is possible. I guess these people are lonely and unhappy. To conclude, many men, many minds and a pessimistic point of view has the right to exist. But I strongly believe if friendship is sincere, it will never be rejected. It will survive all the storms, fires and winds.

Dieting: for and against.

  • One should eat to live, not live to eat.
  • It`s fashionable today to lead a healthy lifestyle and be as fit as a fiddle. In order to be healthy and fit some people prefer to go on a diet. The purpose of this report is to juxtapose (outline) any good or bad points of dieting
  • In my view controlling what you eat is not so bad and there are some reasons why. First of all, I mean healthy diet when we eat less fat and cut down on sugar or salt. Then, going on a diet is a good way of loosing weight especially for girls. It`s not only controlling but cutting down more and more food. Lastly, I am for special diets using in treatment of serious diseases (when there is something wrong with your liver or stomach ).
  • On the other hand , some people and especially parents are against dieting. They say we should remember that fats and sugar are main sources of energy. In the hectic world of today, we can`t do without energy so we should be careful in limiting these ingredients. Then, some girls have a bee in their bonnet about a slim figure and stop eating meat, bread and milk products or refuse to eat at all. Lack of starch, proteins or fiber can result in anorexia or even in death. A humorist once wrote that the word “diet” comes from the word “to die”. I can`t completely agree and think people should keep to a diet in case of need.
  • In conclusion I `d like to say that it`s not so easy to dot every “i” and cross every “t” and it`s up to you to decide whether to go on a diet or not. But in spite of its bad points, dieting is still popular in female community but it`s a fashion rather than necessity.
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2.3. Тексты с интерпретацией крылатых фраз и пословиц.

  • Структура сочинения - рассуждения может быть использована для интерпретации пословиц, поговорок и крылатых фраз, которые часто включаются в олимпиадные задания разных уровней. Их можно предлагать и вместе составлять, занимаясь на факультативных занятиях по подготовке к олимпиадам и выполняя задания повышенной трудности по различным УМК нового поколения на уроках и дома с сильными учащимися. Ниже приведены образцы сочинений рассуждений « Knowledge is power» и «Imagination is more important than knowledge» (поле изучения раздела«Что может наука» в 11 классе), «Fortune favors the brave»(после изучения раздела « Спорт. Экстремальные виды спорта» в 10 классе ), Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain» (при изучении раздела «Ваше призвание» в 9 классе).

Knowledge is power.

  •    Knowledge stands for information and understanding that a human being gained through learning and experience while power is the ability or right to control people or events. According to Francis Bacon`s words knowledge makes people able to control human progress. The purpose of this report is to illustrate this co-relation.
  • To begin with, let`s answer the question :”Who has more power: a tribal chief or a worker ?” As far as I`m concerned, a tribal chief owns a total power over the members of his tribe but despite this fact, he lives in an absolute poverty. For me it is as clear as day why: he doesn`t possess enough knowledge about the world to change the situation, what`s more , he doesn`t want to do it.
  • In contrast, a worker deals with technological advances and create new ones himself. This became possible thanks to learning and understanding what`s going on around. If people stop thinking and enlarging knowledge about the world, if a worker stops working, progress will stop too. Isn`t it a real power?
  • In conclusion I`d like to say that all human achievements are the finish result of both knowledge and imagination. But the thing is that knowledge is endless and it`s imagination that leads it to higher levels giving birth to genius. So, let them coexist in the future in order to make mankind more powerful.

Imagination is more important than knowledge.

  • Knowledge stands for information and understanding that a human being gained through learning and experience while imagination is the ability to form ideas in your mind guessing the answer to a question. Let`s outline these phenomena to reveal a higher priority.
  • It stands for reason that academic knowledge is power. All human discoveries are based on positive results of observation and calculations. But let`s аpeal to the facts. Up to the end of the 19th century heavier-than-air-and-water floating machines were impossible . It was а dream that fired Leonardo da Vinci`s imagination to sketch a helicopter. In addition, a science-fiction writer Jules Verne described a submarine more than forty years before its invention. So, both machines appeared thanks to imagination.
  • Let`s take special knowledge needed to do the job properly. Actually qualification is a necessary point in you CV when you apply for the position. On the other hand, creativity and ability to predict are much more important things for employer and therefore those who have an ability to expect unexpected are more likely to be hired.
  • In conclusion I`d like to say that all human achievements are the finish result of both knowledge and imagination. I guess A. Einstein ment that knowledge is endless and it`s imagination that leads it to higher levels giving birth to genius. So, let them coexist in the future
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Fortune favours the brave.

  • Daring people are people willing to do dangerous things with courage 8 confidence. To illustrate this proverb let`s think over the question:”Is it true that the greatest success in life goes to risk takers?”
  • I share the view that there is a close link between bravery and fortune. Let’s apply to the facts. Up to the end of the 18th century people all over the world died of small pox. Laboratory experiments led to the great discovery that pathogen bacteria had ability to kill themselves. So special vaccine was invented and a man had to be vaccinated to prove the hypothesis. It was a British doctor Jenner who made up his mind to vaccinate himself. He wasn’t sure whether he would stay alive or not. But that was the chance he had to take and fortunately, the test resulted in success. Jenner put his life to save millions of others`.
  • On the other hand, not all daring adventures end well. Besides, many people think it’s not very clever to take risks for no purpose and don’t understand those who go rock climbing to reach Everest or run a hand glider to get a dose of adrenaline. I think there is some point in what risky people are doing. In spite of the probability to die, they do the things they fear most and as a result stop fearing.
  • All things considered, risky people deserve respect since their bravery give mankind a chance to experience a feeling that the whole world is at its knees.

. Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain

  •   Many young people decide on a university career after leaving school and their parents are ready to pay. But is learning worth spending money on? The purpose of this report is to outline the problem.
  • As far as I`m concerned, studying for a degree costs a lot but gives a lot of advantages. To begin with, it jogs your brain and improve your outlook on life. Besides, if you are a good language learner you`ll have a chance to participate in students exchange programs and travel a lot . It broadens your mind and helps to bесome a well-rounded person. Then, it`s the best way to get a prestigious and well-paid job. For example, you can earn a good living in information technology or other qualified professions. That is why students are eager to learn and some of them try to find after -university job if their parents unable to pay.
  • However, a number of school-leavers prefer not to spend money on brain. The reasons are different. Firstly, they realise that education is not for them and believe it`s possible to make loads of money and have BMWs without academic knowledge. Secondly, education is not very cheap today therefore those who don`t have a desire to study prefer to waste money on possessions. I don`t mind getting some work experience before studying but I strongly believe that it`s extremely beneficial to study for better education then and pay money for it.
  • In conclusion I`d like to say that it`s up to you to decide whether to spend money on your development or not but in fact learning jogs your brain, builds up your character and as a result doesn`t let you become a looser. So, the brain is worth spending money on.
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  • 3. Кузовлев В .П., Лапа Н.М. Книга для учащихся (Student’s Book) Английский язык. 9 класс – учебник для. общеобразовательных учреждений с приложением на электронном носителе -М. Просвещение, 2014.
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  • 6. Гроза О.Л и др. Учебник для 11 класса общеобразовательных учреждений New Millennium English. -Титул, 2012 .