Конспект урока "How to read English numerals"

Gymnasium “Dmitrov”
The whole-school conference of students’ research works “Perspective project”
Subject: English
Topic «How to read English Numerals»
Performed by: Poltoratskaya Anna Nikolaievna,
5 form «L» «gymnasium «Dmitrov»»
Supervisor: Senatorova L.V.,
Teacher of English
«gymnasium «Dmitrov»»
Dmitrov, 2017
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Contents
1
Introduction……………………………………………………………………
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2
English Numerals …………………… …………………………………….
3
2.1 Cardinal numerals ……………….. ………………………………………
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2.2 Ordinal numerals …………...…………………………………………….
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2.3 Fractions ……………………………………………………………….....
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2.4 Years …………………………………………………………………….
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2.5 Dates ……………………………………………………………………
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2.6 Telephone numbers .. …………………………………………………….
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2.7 The use of hundred, thousand, million …………………………………..
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2.8 Zero in the English language……………………………………………..
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Practical part. The results of numeral reading test. ………………………….
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Conclusion …..………………………………………………………………..
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5
Resources …………... ………………………………………………………..
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Vocabulary …………………………………………………………………....
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Appendixes ……………………………………………………………….
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1. Introduction
My favourite subjects are Maths and English and I wanted to combine these two
subjects in one project. That’s why the topic of my project is «How to read English
numerals».
The aim of the project is to find out if numeral reading is different in Russian and
English and how to read them correctly.
The tasks are the following:
1. To find the information on the topic;
2. To analyze and systemize the information;
3. To test my classmates to know how well they can read numerals;
4. To make a presentation in PowerPoint;
5. To learn how to use Microsoft Office Publisher and to make a brochure «Rules of
reading numerals»;
6. To develop communication skills;
7. To enlarge my vocabulary.
The urgency of my project is that it gives the opportunity to read English numerals
correctly.
The hypothesis: I suppose my classmates will find it difficult to read some numerals
in English. In the first place, they will be fractions.
The methods of research. Theoretical methods are studying the information, analysis
and synthesis. The empirical method is testing.
2. English Numerals
We meet numerals every day. We count money, memorize telephone numbers and do
the sums in the Maths lesson. At school we begin learning numerals at primary school.
What is a numeral? It is a part of speech that denotes the quantity and the order of
things.
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In Russian and English numerals can be cardinal and ordinal (Appendix 1). In
1
Numerals in English. LANGFORMULA. URL : http://langformula.ru/english-grammar/numerals/ (date of access 11/11/17)
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English they do not change by cases. In both languages numerals can be simple and
composite. Simple: two, seventeen, twenty, million. Composite: twenty five, three hundred
and fourteen.
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Cardinal numerals denote how many things there are. We ask the question “How
many?” Ordinal numerals denote the order of things, we ask the question “which?”
Examples: I have three cakes. The third is my favorite.
Also, there are fractions: simple and decimal.
2.1 Cardinal numerals
To know English numerals better we should know numerals from 1 to 12.
To form numerals from 13 to 19 we should add the suffix -teen to the numeral from
3 to 9 (Appendix 2). For example, six + -teen- = sixteen. But there is a secret with thirteen.
To form numerals from 20 to 90 we should add the suffix ty (Appendix 3). For
example, six + - ty- = sixty.
Composite numerals are formed easily. As we do it in Russian: sixty-five.
Both in British English and in American English groups of three digits in numerals of
one thousand and higher are usually separated by a comma, counting from the right: 4,286;
12,345; 378,925; 6,540,210.
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2.2 Ordinal numerals
To give the order of things we should add the suffix th. For example, six the
sixth, twenty-six twenty-sixth (Appendix 4).
There are some rules to follow:
To make composite numerals ordinal we add th to the last number: 147 one hundred
forty-seventh.
Tens with the letter y change it into ie: 90 ninety, 90th ninetieth.
2
Numerals in English. URL : http://study-english.info/numeral.php (date of access 11/11/17)
3
Numbers and Numerals. Useful English. URL: http://usefulenglish.ru/miscellany/numbers-and-numerals (date of access
30/11/17)
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There are some exceptions the first, the second, the third, the fifth, the ninth, the
twelfth.
2.3 Fractions
In order to read fractions properly we should know both cardinal and ordinal
numerals.
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(Appendix 5). In fractions the numerator is a cardinal numeral, but the
denominator is an ordinal numeral. The same is in the Russian language. If the numerator
is more than one, the denominator is a plural. For example: 1/5 one fifth or a fifth, 4/7
four sevenths, 2 ¼ - two and one fourth/quarter, 1 1/2 one and a half. They were simple
fractions.
What about decimal fractions? If to compare with Russian, we read them differently.
The dot (.) is a point.
Zero is nought, zero, O [ou] (the letter of the English alphabet).
If the integer part is “zero”, we can start reading the number with the point. For
example: 0.1 is point one.
If the integer part is two digits, we can read it by one digit or together. 38.2 - three
eight point two or thirty eight point two. But 345.6 is only three four five point six. After
the point numbers are said only by one. For example: 674.54 - six seven four point five four.
2.4 Years
How to read years in English? We divide the year into two parts.
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For example, 1996
is 19 and 96, that is nineteen ninety-six (Appendix 6).
Years ending in two zeros are read like this: 1900 nineteen hundred.
Years like 1907 are read nineteen hundred oh seven.
2000 is two thousand.
4
How to read decimal fractions? How to read simple fractions? URL : http://www.englishliveshere.ru/2017/04/blog-
post_68.html (date of access 11/11/17)
5
Proshkina Ilona, article «How to read years», Online school of foreign languages. URL : https://lingvister.ru/blog/kak-
chitat-goda-na-angliyskom-year-in-year-out (date of access 26/11/17)
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Years from 2001 to 2009 are cardinal numerals. We read them like 2006 two
thousand (and) six. But after 2010 we can read years in two possible ways.
1) two thousand and sixteen
2) twenty sixteen.
2.5 Dates
There are two variants of reading dates: American and British.
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(Appendix 7). In
British English we read this date 2.11.2017 like this: the second of November two thousand
and seventeen or twenty seventeen. In American English: February eleventh twenty
seventeen.
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It means that in Britain the date is: day, month, year, and in America it is month,
day, year.
One more example. March 13, 1973 March, the thirteenth, nineteen seventy-three
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th
March, 1973 The thirteenth of March, nineteen seventy-three.
Also, in American English and is dropped: 2017 two thousand and seventeen.
2.6 Telephone numbers
In Russian we read telephone numbers in tens and hundreds, but in English we should
say the numbers by one digit: 555-757-23-11 five, five, five, seven, five, seven, two,
three, one, one.
If we see double и triple digits, we say: 555-757-23-11 triple five, seven, five,
seven, two, three, double one. I should say that in the English lesson we didn’t use the word
triple.
6
Dates in English: reading and spelling. URL : https://www.learnathome.ru/blog/dates-in-english (date of access 5/11/17)
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How to pronounce dates and numbers in English. URL : http://www.english-at-home.com/pronunciation/saying-dates-and-
numbers-in-english/ (date of access 5/11/17)
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2.7 The use of hundred, thousand, million
In English words hundred, thousand, million are always singular if we use them in
phrases: two hundred, twenty thousand, and four million.
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But in the same position in
Russian we use plural of these words.
In English they can be plural when we use them in such phrases:
Hundreds of ships
Millions of stars
2.8 Zero in English
There are some ways to say “zero” in English: zero, o [ou], nill, nought, love.
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Zero is the most neutral word, zero is used in Maths and when we say the temperature.
O is often used instead of «zero» in everyday English, when we read telephone
numbers.
Nill means “nothing” , it is used to say the score of the game: Argentina five,
Jamaica nill.
Nought means “nothing”, this word is seldom used in America these days, and in
British English it is already outdated.
Love is used to say tennis scores: ‘The score was thirty love. (30-0)
The best way to say “zero” is “zero”.
8
Numerals hundred, thousand, million. URL: http://fortee.ru/2015/11/14/hundred-thousand-million-dozen/ (date of access
30/11/17)
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How to say zero in English. URL: https://englishwithatwist.com/2013/04/09/how-to-say-zero-in-english/ (date of access
30/11/17)
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3. Practical part. The results of numeral reading test
At the beginning of my work on the project I decided to find out if my classmates
could read all the numerals correctly. For this I prepared cards with numerals and asked my
classmates to read them. The results are the following.
The children easily read years, cardinal and ordinal numerals. However, the year of
1900 was a mistake.
My classmates had difficulties reading fractions. Thus, my hypothesis was confirmed:
children can read not all numerals. The reason for this is that in the English lessons we don’t
meet fractions every day.
4. Conclusion
In conclusion I would like to say that there are some similarities and differences
between Russian and English numerals. If they are similar, it is easy to read them. If they
are different, we have difficulties reading them.
All in all, a numeral is a part of speech that denotes the quantity and the order of
things. There are cardinal and ordinal numerals. Unlike the Russian language English
numerals do not change by cases. Also numerals can be simple and composite. There are
fractions.
During the reading test I found out that fractions were difficult to read.
While working on the project I found out that there are two variants to read dates:
American English and British English.
The words “hundred”, “thousand”, “million” are used in singular when they follow
the number, but they are used in plural in phrases like “millions of stars”.
It was interesting to know that there are some ways to say “zero”.
So, there are some rules of reading numerals. To help my classmates to read numerals
correctly I made a brochure and gave it to them.
I suppose my project will be interesting and educational for many people.
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5. Resources
1. Dates in English: reading and spelling. URL :
https://www.learnathome.ru/blog/dates-in-english (date of access 5/11/17)
2. How to pronounce dates and numbers in English. URL : http://www.english-at-
home.com/pronunciation/saying-dates-and-numbers-in-english/ (date of access
5/11/17)
3. How to read decimal fractions? How to read simple fractions? URL :
http://www.englishliveshere.ru/2017/04/blog-post_68.html (date of access
11/11/17)
4. Numerals in English. LANGFORMULA. URL : http://langformula.ru/english-
grammar/numerals/ (date of access 11/11/17)
5. Numerals in English. URL : http://study-english.info/numeral.php (date of
access 11/11/17)
6. Numbers in English, Education First. URL : http://www.ef.com/english-
resources/english-grammar/numbers-english/ (date of access 26/11/17)
7. Proshkina Ilona, article «How to read years», Online school of foreign
languages. URL : https://lingvister.ru/blog/kak-chitat-goda-na-angliyskom-
year-in-year-out (date of access 26/11/17)
8. Shutikova Anna, article «Numerals in the English language», Begin English.
URL : http://begin-english.ru/article/chislitelnye-v-angliyskom-yazyke/ (date
of access 26/11/17)
9. The Numeral. URL : http://englishfromhome.ru/grammar/numeral.php (date
of access 26/11/17)
10. How to say zero in English. URL:
https://englishwithatwist.com/2013/04/09/how-to-say-zero-in-english/ (date of
access 30/11/17)
11. Numerals hundred, thousand, million. URL: http://fortee.ru/2015/11/14/hundred-
thousand-million-dozen/ (date of access 30/11/17)
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12. Numbers and Numerals. Useful English. URL:
http://usefulenglish.ru/miscellany/numbers-and-numerals (date of access
30/11/17)
6. Vocabulary
Aa
Aim - цель
All in all в общем
Analyze - анализировать
Appendix - приложение
Bb
Both languages оба языка
Brochure брошюра, буклет
Cc
Cardinal количественное числительное
Case - падеж
Combine объединять
Comma - запятая
Composite составной , сложный
Correctly - правильно
Dd
Date дата
Decimal - десятичный
Denominator - знаменатель
Denote означать, обозначать
Develop communication skills развивать коммуникативные навыки
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Digit цифра
Divide делить
Do the sums решать примеры
Dot точка
Double удваивать
Ee
Educational образовательный
Empirical основанный на опыте
Enlarge vocabulary расширять словарный запас
Exception исключение
Ff
Following следующий
Form (v) формировать
Fraction дробь
Hh
However тем не менее, однако
Hypothesis гипотеза
Ii
Instead of вместо чего-то
Integer целое число
Mm
Mean означать
Memorize запоминать
Nn
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Numeral - числительное
Numerator числитель
Oo
Opportunity - возможность
Order - порядок
Ordinal порядковые числительные
Outdated старомодный, устаревший
Pp
Point точка (в десятичной дроби)
Possible возможный, вероятный
Primary school - начальная школа
Properly - правильно
Qq
Quantity - количество
Rr
Reason for причина для
Research исследование, исследовать
Resources - ресурсы
Ss
Score - счет
Seldom - редко
Separate - разделять
Similar подобный, похожий
Similarity сходство
Simple - простой
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Suffix - суффикс
Suppose - полагать, считать
Synthesis - обобщение
Systemize - систематизировать
Tt
Task -задание
Thus таким образом
Triple - утраивать
Uu
Urgency - актуальность