Презентация "A Tudor Christmas" 8-9 класс
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Инсарская Галина Борисовна, учитель английского языка МБОУ «Лицей №23» г. Мытищи
Long before the birth of Christ, midwinter had always been a time for merry making by the masses.
The root of the midwinter rituals was the winter solstice - the shortest day - which falls on 21st December.
After this date the days lengthened and the return of spring, the season of life, was eagerly anticipated. It was therefore a time to celebrate both the end of the autumn sowing and the fact that the 'life giving' sun had not deserted them.
The scriptures however make no mention as to the time of year yet alone the actual date of the nativity.
Even our current calendar which supposedly calculates the years from the birth of Christ, was drawn up in the sixth century by Dionysius, an 'innumerate' Italian monk to correspond with a Roman Festival.
Until the 4th century Christmas could be celebrated throughout Europe anywhere between early January through to late September.
It was Pope Julius I who happened upon the bright idea of adopting 25th December as the actual date of the Nativity.
The choice appears both logical and shrewd - blurring religion with existing feast days and celebrations.
A Tudor Christmas was starting to resemble something we in the C21st might recognise even if there were some parts to a Christmas we would not!
But Tudor England was still many years away from Christmas cards, Christmas turkey, Christmas crackers, Father Christmas in his red costume and even the common use of Christmas trees.
Christmas was the greatest festival celebrated by the Tudors.
Advent was a time of fasting; Christmas Eve was particularly strictly kept with no meat, cheese or eggs.
Celebrations began on Christmas Day when 3 masses were said and the genealogy of Christ was sung while everyone held lighted tapers.
The Monarch was required to attend mass and would be expected to wear new clothes.
He would progress from the Privy Chamber to the Chapel Royal dressed in coronation robes of purple and/or scarlet complete with crown.
The whole 12 days of Christmas was celebrated, (25th December - 6th January) but not every day was celebrated equally.
All work stopped except looking after animals, spinning was even banned as this was the most common occupation for women and flowers were placed around the spinning wheels.
People would visit friends and it was seen as very much a community celebration. Work re-started on Plough Monday the first Monday after 12th night.
In Tudor Times most of the 12 days of Christmas were saints days the 3 most important were 25th Dec, 1st Jan and 6th Jan which is when the most sumptuous feasts were held.
Up to 24 courses would be served, much more than was needed for the guests but it was a status symbol and left over food would be used to feed the poor.
For the rich, the traditional meat on Christmas Day remained swan and goose as in a Medieval Christmas feast.
In fact, in 1588, Elizabeth I ordered that everybody should have goose for their Xmas dinner as it was the first meal she had after the victory of the Spanish Armada and she believed that this gesture would be a fitting tribute to the English sailors who fought off the Spanish.
However, it is not known how many of the poor of the land could carry out this order as goose remained an expensive luxury – though Christmas was seen as a special celebration.
The first record of a turkey being brought to Europe was in 1519.
It was to be many years before this bird had reason to fear the Festive season.
Peacocks were also on the menu for the rich. However, it became a Xmas tradition to skin the bird first, then cook it and then place the roast bird back into its skin as a main table presentation.
Eventually, each year, large flocks of turkeys could be seen walking to London from Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridge on foot; a journey which they may have started as early as August
The homes of the wealthy also used to cook a wild boar on Xmas Day and its head was used as a dinner table decoration.
However, cooking made the head’s fur go pale and so it was covered in soot and pig’s grease to make the cooked head looked more natural.
Christmas puddings were made of meat, oatmeal and spices.
However, cooking this combination meant that if would fall to bits once it was ready to serve.
The Tudors got over this by wrapping the mixture in the gut of a pig and cooking it in a sausage shape.
It was also the fashion in Tudor times for mince pies to be shaped like a crib.
The rule of Oliver Cromwell in the mid-C17th ended this practice as it was seen as bordering on blasphemy.
1587 is the first recorded date we have of brussel sprouts being used in cooking.
A Tudor Christmas Pie was indeed a sight to behold but not one to be enjoyed by a vegetarian.
The contents of this dish consisted of a Turkey stuffed with a goose stuffed with a chicken stuffed with a partridge stuffed with a pigeon.
All of this was put in a pastry case, called a coffin and was served surrounded by jointed hare, small game birds and wild fowl.
And to wash it all down, a drink from the Wassail bowl. The word 'Wassail' derives from the Anglo-Saxon 'Waes-hael', meaning 'be whole' or 'be of good health'.
The bowl, a large wooden container holding as much as a gallon of punch made of hot-ale, sugar, spices and apples. This punch to be shared with friends and neighbours.
A crust of bread was placed at the bottom of the Wassail bowl and offered to the most important person in the room - hence today's toast as part of any drinking ceremony.
Another Tudor Christmas tradition was the performing of plays.
There are records from the early 16th century that both Oxford and Cambridge colleges employed travelling players in their Christmas entertainments.
There are also records of a play being performed for Cardinal Wolsey at Grays Inn during Christmas 1526. Coventry mystery plays which the Coventry carol was written for, tell the story of Herod's murder of the innocents. Mystery plays are still performed
The Tudors did not have Christmas trees, although they were around in 16th century. It is a Baltic/northern German tradition and even then it is not recorded until 1520.
The first known record of a Christmas Tree was in 1510 in Riga, Latvia, then part of Germany.
The decorations they would have used would have been natural ever greens like holly, ivy, yew, mistletoe, box and laurel.
They would not have decorated their houses until Christmas eve as it was thought to be unlucky to do it before.
The more modern tradition of fairy lights is said to originate from the 16th century Legend of Martin Luther.
He was walking in the snow covered woods and seeing stars through the trees was struck by the beauty, he took a tree home and put candles on it, that's why we have fairy lights!
On a journey home in the winter of 1522, he was struck by the beauty of the stars shining through the fir trees that were common where he lived in north Germany.
He cut off the top of one of the smaller trees and took it home. Once indoors the beauty disappeared as the stars were not there.
To impress his children, he put small candles on the ends of the branches to resemble stars – hence candles at Christmas which were eventually to be replaced with Christmas tree lights
Which Pope set Christmas Day as December 25?
a) Julius 1
b) Francis 1
c) Paul VI
d) John Paul II
What is the period for fasting before Christmas known as?
The 12 days of Christmas took place between?
a) December 24- January 6
b) December 6-December 26
c) December 25-January 6
d) December 26-January 6
In 1588, who ordered that goose should be eaten on Christmas Day?
a) Henry VII
b) Henry VIII
c) Edward VI
d) Elizabeth I
The first record of a turkey being brought to Europe was in?
In was fashionable to make mince pies in the shape of a?
1587 is the first recorded date we have of what being used in cooking?
The contents of what dish consisted of a Turkey stuffed with a goose stuffed with a chicken stuffed with a partridge stuffed with a pigeon.
a) Mince pie
b) Christmas pudding
c) Christmas pie
d) Christmas trifle
c) Waste paper
To wash it all the food people might drink from the what bowl?
There are records of a play being performed for who at Grays Inn during Christmas 1526.
a) Henry VIII
b) Cardinal Wolsey
c) Thomas More
d) Thomas Cromwell
The first known record of a Christmas Tree was in 1510 in what was then part of Germany.
a) Riga, Latvia
b) Riga, Lithuania
c) Riga, Estonia
d) Riga, Russia
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