Презентация "Откройте для себя Татарстан. История Казани" 11 класс
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Откройте для себя Татарстан
Hospitable land of Tatarstan warmly welcomes you to show its best places of interest and history. Once having visited it you will surely wish to come back here again.
You will learn the 1000years' history of Kazan and maybe dream of medieval towns of the ancient state named Volga Bulgaria. Walking along the silent streets of country towns you will enjoy looking at picturesque nature, which made impressions on such prominent people as Ivan Shishkin, Gabdulla Tukai, Maxim Gorky, Fyodor Shalyapin. Your memory will keep it for long time the magnificence of white stone Kremlin, golden domes of the monasteries and churches, intricate decoration of the mosques' minarets, old famous legends. You will bring home unforgettable impressions of your visiting our beautiful
White stoned Kremlin stands in the very heart of Kazan. You can not help admiring the capital of Tatarstan Republic with its marvellous towers, glistening domes and ornate minarets. Kazan was founded 1000 years ago on the top of a hill on the left bank of Kazanka river. Thus it was situated close to the confluence of Kazanka and Bulak rivers. Thousand years ago wooden fortress walls had been risen on this place. They protected the northern territory of the state known as Volga Kama Bulgaria. Since that time Kremlin changed several times. Bulgarian craftsmen replaced its wooden walls with the stone ones in XII century. After the half of centennial period it was conquered by the army of Golden Horde and afterwards Kremlin became a capital of Kazan Khanate. Tatar capital of that time was believed to be one of the most beautiful towns in the Volga region. The town spread around the high cape of Kazanka river. Far from the river one could see fanciful silhouette of the eight towered mosque, Khan palace with its towers, galleries and halls, stone mausoleums and caravanserais.
The total area of the Kremlin today is 12 hectares. The length of its walls is about 1800m. Its eight towers form a perimeter. Only 8 of 13 towers are saved today and two of the formerly five towers have through passage. They are Spasskaya (Saviour) and Tainitskaya (Secrecy) towers.
Elegant Spasskaya tower is a main entrance to the Kremlin now. Being the main tower of the Kremlin it was given a special attention in all construction periods. It was built in the XVI century on the place of the former main entrance to the formerly ancient tatar fortress and had just two tiers at first. Its walls were made of lime stone and had a timber roof with a watch tower. Savior church joined to Spasskaya tower in the northern part gave the name to the tower. In the XVIII century Spasskaya tower was overbuilt. Timber hipped roof was replaced by two octahedrons and a dome. Church belfry was under the dome of Savior tower then. Alarm bell used to sound loudly in case of fires. Curious clock with the face moving around a fixed hand was installed there in XVIII century. There is an electrical clockwork nowadays. At nights the tower is lit up crimson when clock strikes. Spasskaya tower is the oldest museum in Kazan. Since long times ago articles of 1552 have been exhibited here, such as flags, cannons and balls of Russian army.
One of them is about Tainitskaya (Secrecy) tower. Impressive two tiered Tainitskaya tower most of all has saved the spirit of the age. You find yourself in the atmosphere of a secrecy standing under its dark vaults. This is also a nice place to feel fresh in a hot summer day. There was a secret passage leading to the water spring under this tower. When Russians learned about it the secret passaged was blown up by the soldiers of Ivan IV. This made faster capture of the town. Since then the name of this tower reminds us of that secret passage and a water spring. Tightly closed in old times, now the gate of the tower is open and welcomes every visitor who wishes to enter its cool shadow and find himself in the territory of ancient Kremlin.
Bright yellow and white building of Administrative corps of the President of Tatarstan Republic is the first object to rivet your attention. It was renovated recently in accordance with the old pictures of the XIX century. So now you see a building with striking magnificence and architectural perfection.
Administrative corps of the President of Tatarstan
Suyumbike tower an architectural symbol of Kazan. Morning rays of sunrise make its elegant contour more vivid. The tower has a lot of interesting and perfectly fine architectural details. There is a combination of Tatar and Russian architectural traditions used in its construction. The exact date and purpose of its construction are not known yet. It is suggested the tower was built in the late XVII century as the highest watch tower of the Kremlin. It is 58 m high. Suyumbike tower is a falling tower. Its leaning is 1,98 m regarding to vertical axis. People belive the history of this tower is connected with Suyumbike - a wife of the last Kazan Khan.
Her contemporaries were charmed by her beauty:
«Kazan tsarina you are so beautiful, clever and reasonable.
There is no such a lady among all other women in Kazan...»
Governor Palace the place where political power has been concentrated for centuries.
Initially Khan Palace was founded here (remnants have been found by archeologists lately). Governor palace was erected here in 1840-s. It is designed by a prominent architect Konstantin Ton in pseudo-bysantinesque style. He was also an architect of the Big Kremlin Palace and Cathedral of the Saviour in Moscow. The building housed the residence of the Governor of Kazan province before the Great October Revolution. Later on it was given to the Supreme Council and Council of Ministers of the former TASSR (Tatar Autonomic Soviet Socialist Republic). At present time it is an official residence of the President of Tatarstan Republic.
Blagoveschensky Cathedral it was founded by Ivan IV in October 2, 1552. At first a wooden church was erected here just for 3 days' period. Construction of the white stoned five-domed Annunciation Cathedral was started in 1556. Well known Pskov craftsmen directed by Postnik Yakovlev and Ivan Shiryai raised it together with construction of the fortress's wall and towers. During the last reconstruction of the Cathedral in the XVIII century, the shape of the domes and refectory in western part were changed then. Annunciation cathedral's interior is richly decorated with fresco, some of them saved till nowadays. Main theme of the cathedral's interior fresco is dedicated to the history of miraculous icon of the St. Virgin of Kazan. There was a rich sacristy in the Cathedral. The Gospel of Ephraem was among the most valuable books of the collection. Now it is kept in the National
Historical Museum of Tatarstan Republic. The Ephraem's gospel printed in Moscow in 1606 has interesting ornament and rare depiction of the four Evangelists. Till the beginning of XX century the Cathedral had a belfry which was obviously formerly rebuilt from an old Bulgar watch tower. At present time Annunciation Cathedral is under restoration. Hereafter it will house a museum of Orthodox culture. However it will open its doors on grand occasions - Easter and Christmas - welcoming people for religious celebrations.
Kul Sharif mosque brings us reminiscence of the formerly existed splendid mosque of Kazan Khanate, demolished in the XVI century. Kul Sharif was a preacher of that mosque. He was at the head of the battle of 1552 defending the town together with his 200 disciples - shakirds. All they have died fighting against agressors to save their homeland. The Tatar people has kept a memory of that battle.
In 1995 decision was taken to build a new mosque in the Kremlin as a revival of the legendary mosque. Today it reminds us the former mosque of the XVI century which had eight minarets. Main dome of the mosque looks like a Kazan Cap - crown of Kazan khans. Blue color of the domes simbolizes the sky.
Kul Sharif mosque will bear not only religious, but cultural and educational functions. Being a big scientific complex it will include a museum of Islam culture of Volga region, a museum of old manuscripts and a library.
While walking in the Kremlin you will hardly miss a big complex of Gun powder yard. Since long ago such arms as cannons, cannon-balls were manufactured in this place of Kazan Kremlin. Arrow heads, swords, spears were made here at first. Later on cannons and balls have been cast here. Archeological discoveries let us better to know about this craft and unveil its secrets. In the nearest future architectural ensemble of Gun powder yard architectural complex will house a museum of history of Kazan Kremlin, Armoury museum and a museum of museum of jewellery art.
Gun powder yard
A long white building of Military school stretched out near Gun powder yard complex. Once cadets studied here to be the defenders of their home land. Soon the building will be given for a museum of the Nature and Art gallery.
You see another big and long building - Office Housed. Up to this day the building is used to house official governmental bodies, such as ministries and departments . This is also the place where the Directorate of Historical and Cultural museum preserve «Kazan Kremlin» is situated. Founded in 1994 it has been planning and directing restoration and reconstruction works together with spacious archeological excavations.
Kazan Kremlin has become a monument of UNESCO World Heritage. It is a unique monument of world culture and the only working center of Tatar government system. The outstanding feature of this monument is that actually it is the only fortress in Russia which preserved the fundamentals of the tatar craftmanship in town construction. And now the fortress presents a result of interconnection of various town planning traditions and architectural ideas.
We see, nowadays Kazan Kremlin symbolizes a reflection of
the nation's history its culture and traditions.
Magnificent golden crosses of the Annunciation cathedral harmonize with ornate minarets of Kul Sharif mosque.
Kazan is the place where two worlds meet each other.
It has two origins Western and Oriental.
And you see these all around and at every step.
We are glad
to welcome you
Thank you for your attention!
- Материал для презентации был взят из брошюры о Казани «Открой для себя Татарстан». Серия путеводителей выпущена по заказу Министерства по делам молодежи и спорту Республики Татарстан. Общая редакция: Л.В.Милашевская. Текст: Н.Х. Халитов.(e-mail:email@example.com).Фотографии с архитектурными зданиями из интернета поисковой системы Google.