Kazakhstan (Part 1)
The Republic of Kazakhstan is situated in the Central Asia. Kazakhstan was established as the
republic of Kazakhstan in December 1991. The country is the second largest of the former Soviet
republics with a total area of over 2753000 square kilometers. Its population is about 16 million.
The population mostly lives in towns and large villages.
Kazakhstan borders China, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kirgizia. There is a long
border coast line on the Caspian Sea in the Southwest. Kazakh is the state language of the
country, but it is not the only language which people speak in the country. Russian is the
language of mutual communication among the people of different nationalities. Other languages
are spoken there too.
Astana is the capital of the Republic. It is situated in the central part of the country. Almaty was
the capital until December 1997, and then it was moved to Akmola, 850 kilometres to the north-
west. In May 1998 Akmola was renamed Astana, the Kazakh word for capital. The largest cities
are Almaty, Karaganda, Shimkent, Pavlodar and Kostanay.
There are many rivers and lakes in Kazakhstan. The four rivers are the main resources of water
in the country. They are the Irtish in the east, the Syr-Daria in the southwest, the Ili in the
southeast, and the Ural in the northwest of the country. The largest lakes are the Balkhash, the
Zaysan, the Ala-Kol, and the Tengiz.
The climate of the country is strongly continental. It is cold in winter and hot in summer. Rain
usually falls in spring and in autumn. Snow falls in all areas but not at the same time. In the
south snow falls in November or December, in the north it falls as a rule in October or
November. The flora and fauna of the country are different. They depend on the climate of the
area. They are the richest in the south and poor in the north.
The country is rich in mineral resources such as copper, oil, natural gas, gold, iron, lead, nickel,
silver, tin, uranium and zinc. Agriculture takes a very important sector in the national economy.
The people grow wheat, millet, corn and cotton. Peaceful and generous, the land of the Kazakhs
has always been famous for its hospitality. People of Kazakhstan are happy to share that famous
hospitality and to show the visitors the Alatau mountains with famous Medeu; the singing sands
of the Altyn Emel National Park, Kapchagai – reservoir on the Ili river, the lakes and pine forests
of Kokshetau; and Akhmed Yassaui Mausoleum in Turkestan, a lot of places of interest in
Astana. Kazakhstan is the world’s ninth largest area, has many beautiful places and rich culture.
7. Checking comprehension.
a). Discuss the following questions in your groups:
1. Where is Kazakhstan situated?
2. What is the capital of it?
3. What is the official language of the country?
4. What countries does Kazakhstan border?
5. How can you describe the climate of Kazakhstan?
6. Are there any rivers and lakes in Kazakhstan? What are the largest of them?
7. Kazakhstan is rich in mineral resources, isn’t it?
8. What have you read about the national economy?
b). Complete the sentences with the missing words in the correct form. Look through the text if
1. The total _________ of Kazakhstan is over 2753000 square kilometers.
2. Its _________ is about 16 million.
3. Kazakhstan ___________ China, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kirgizia.