Lesson 1. FROM THE HISTORY OF RYAZAN.
The aim of the lesson is to get acquainted with the unknown facts from the history of Ryazan
and learn to speak about the history of Ryazan.
I. Read the geographical names:
the Trubezh the Slavs Pereyaslavl Ryazansky
the Lybed the Rus the Principality of Ryazan
the Oka the Arabs the Vyatichi
II. Read the text. (It can be given as a home assignment beforehand)
According to the historical documents Ryazan was founded in 1095. The town was situated
on a high hill between two rivers: the Trubezh and the Lybed, not far from the Oka River. The
land around the town attracted our ancestors by vast meadows, deep forests rich in animals and
birds and the rivers rich in fish. The original settlement of the Vyatichi (an eastern Slavonic
tribe) was located here. People lived by crop-growing, hunting and fishing. The Oka – the “great
river of the Slavs and Rus” as the Arabs called it, connected the trade centers of Baltic lands with
the countries of the Orient up to China.
Ryazan was the capital of the Principality of Ryazan. It should be mentioned that the capital
was what we now call Old Ryazan. It is a village now and it is situated 50 km to the south –east
from modern Ryazan on the Oka River. So, as you see, first Old Ryazan appeared and it was the
capital of the Principality of Ryazan.
In the 13
century Ryazan was the first to meet the invaders of the Golden Horde. In 1237
Khan Baty came to Ryazan and all the Towns of the Principality were burnt down and their
population was almost completely wiped out. When speaking about mongolo-tatar invasion one
can’t help mentioning Evpaty Kolovrat. He was the warriors’ leader. He and his 1700 warriors
were late for the battle against Khan Baty. That was why he followed the enemies and attacked
them. Mongolo-tatars were very surprised to see Evpaty Kolovrat and his warriors. They thought
the dead people of Ryazan became alive. The battle was terrible. All Russian people were killed.
But the history remembers and honours them. In fact Evpaty Kolovrat and his people were the
first partisans in Russia. This was the end of the history of Old Ryazan, because the town was
often attacked by the enemies. And so another town, Pereyaslavl Ryazansky, as modern Ryazan
was called then, became the capital of the Principality of Ryazan. That was in the mid-
In the 12
centuries Ryazan was ranked as a Great Principality famous for its
richness. In 1521 Pereyaslavl Ryazansky became one of the parts of the Russian State. In 1778
according to the edict of Kathrine II Pereyaslavl Ryazansky got the name of Ryazan and 18 years
later in1796 it became the centre of the Ryazan Province.
In 1780 the general plan of Ryazan was established. As a resul the town was devided into
districts, straight central streets were planned, new buildings that became the monuments of
architecture were erected. In the second half of the 19
century Ryazan became the transport
centre. The railroad appeared which connected Ryazan with Moscow and other Russian cities.
Industry and trade were developed here.
Now Ryazan is an industrial centre. The population of the city has grown from 36809 in 1910
up to more than half a million nowadays.
Ryazan is famous for its outstanding people: Evpaty Kolovrat, I.P. Pavlov – a prominent
physiologist, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, I.V. Michurin, F.A. Poletayev who became the hero oh the
USSR and the national hero of Italy during World War II, S.A. Yesenin. And it goes without
saying that we are proud of our city.